Difference between pages "March - Christian Community Year Devotional" and "Updates - Christian Community Year Devotional"

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==== Updates: January 1, 2018 ====
  
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<p><center><big><i>The Lord's Prayer</i></big></center></p>
  
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<p><blockquote>Jesus said "After this manner therefore pray all of you: Our Father which are in Heaven, Hallowed (Holy) be your Name. Your Kingdom come, Your Will be done in earth, as it is in Heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts (sins), as we forgive our debtors (sins against us). And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For Yours is the Kingdom, and the Power, and the Glory, forever. Amen. For if all of you forgive men their trespasses, your Heavenly Father will also forgive you: But if all of you forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses." ~ Matthew 6:9-15</blockquote></p>
  
<h1>March - The Christian Walk</h1>
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<p><center><i>Concerning the Future Judgment<br />The Sheep and the Goats</i></center></p>
  
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<p><blockquote>Jesus said "When the Son of Man shall come in His Glory, and all the Holy Angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the Throne of His Glory: And before Him shall be gathered all nations: and He shall separate them one from another, as a Shepherd divides His sheep from the goats: And He shall set the sheep on His right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King say unto them on His right hand, Come, all of you blessed of My Father, inherit the Kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: For I was hungry, and all of you gave Me food: I was thirsty, and all of you gave Me drink: I was a stranger, and all of you took Me in: Naked, and all of you clothed Me: I was sick, and all of you visited Me: I was in prison, and all of you came unto Me. Then shall the righteous answer Him, saying, Lord, when saw we You hungry, and fed you? or thirsty, and gave You drink? When saw we You a stranger, and took You in? or naked, and clothed You? Or when saw we You sick, or in prison, and came unto You? And the King shall answer and say unto them, Assuredly I say unto you, Inasmuch as all of you have done it unto one of the least of these My brethren, all of you have done it unto Me. Then shall He say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from Me, all of you cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: For I was hungry, and all of you gave Me no food: I was thirsty, and all of you gave Me no drink: I was a stranger, and all of you took Me not in: naked, and all of you clothed Me not: sick, and in prison, and all of you visited Me not. Then shall they also answer Him, saying, Lord, when saw we You hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto you? Then shall He answer them, saying, Assuredly I say unto you, Inasmuch as all of you did it not to one of the least of these, all of you did it not to Me. And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal. ~ Matthew 25:31-46</blockquote></p>
  
<h2>March 1</h2>
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<p><b>Note:</b> Jesus made it clear to His disciples (followers) that we are to forgive one another and that we are to help, encourage and assist one another. It is very much a real concept that in the very and exact way that we treat others even strangers it is in the very same way that God is going to treat us including in the final judgment to come.</p>  
  
<h3>Out of Egypt</h3>
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<p><small>by David Anson Brown</small></p>
  
   
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<p><hr width="65%" align="center"></p>
<h4>Out of Egypt I have called My Son</h4>
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<p>&nbsp;</p>
  
  
<p>A relationship with God is found outside of the present worldly system, outside of Egypt. The Sons and Daughters of God are called to be outside of Egypt in order to be in eternal fellowship with God our Father.</p>
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==== Updates: December 30, 2017 ====
  
<blockquote><p>And [the family of Joseph, Mary and Jesus] was there [Egypt] until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the Prophet [Hosea], saying, Out of Egypt have I called My Son. ~ Matthew 2:15</p></blockquote>
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<p><b>The Primary Ages of the 7 Church Letters of Revelation from Jesus Christ</b></p>
  
<blockquote><p>When Israel was a child, then I [God] loved him, and called My son [the family of Jacob] out of Egypt [to be the Nation of Israel]. As they [Moses and Aaron] called them, so they went [departed] from them [Egypt]: they sacrificed [in the desert - golden calf] unto [the false god of] Baalim, and burned incense to graven images. I taught [the Tribe of] Ephraim also to go, taking them by their arms; but they knew not that I healed them. <u>I drew them with cords of a man, with bands of love</u>: and I was to them as they that take off the yoke [bridle] on their jaws, and I laid food [the manna] unto them. He [Israel] shall not return into the land of Egypt [in captivity], and the Assyrian [a type of strong military strength] shall be his king [the Northern Kingdom was conquered by Assyria], because they refused to return. And the sword shall abide on his cities, and shall consume his branches, and devour them, <b>because of their own counsels</b>. And My people are bent to backsliding from Me: though they [Prophets, Priests, Kings] called them [Nation of Israel] to the Most High, none at all would exalt Him [in a proper Biblical Spiritual resurrection life way]. How shall I give you up, Ephraim? how shall I deliver you, Israel? how shall I make you as Admah [strangers]? how shall I set you as Zeboim [foreigners]? Mine heart is turned within Me, My repentings are kindled together. I will not execute the fierceness of Mine anger, I will not return to destroy Ephraim: for <u>I am God, and not man; the Holy One in the midst of you</u> (the Redemption of Israel): and I will not enter into the city [Jerusalem is forsaken for a time]. They shall walk after the LORD: He shall roar like a Lion: when He shall roar, then the children shall tremble from the west. They shall tremble as a bird out of Egypt, and as a dove out of the land of Assyria: and I will place them in their houses, says the LORD. Ephraim compasses Me about with lies, and the House of Israel with deceit: but Judah (lit. Praise) [the Southern Kingdom of Israel] yet rules with God, and is faithful with the saints. ~ Hosea 11:1-12</p></blockquote>
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<p>1. The Church at Ephesus -- The teaching instructing Church - The Apostles and their disciples including Justin Martyr, etc.<br />
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2. The Church at Smyrna -- The martyred persecuted Church - Polycarp the Bishop of Smyrna, Perpetua and Felicity of Carthage, etc.<br />
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3. The Church at Pergamos -- The worldly government Church - Constantine I, Ambrose, Monica, Augustine, etc.<br />
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4. The Church at Thyatira -- The Roman Catholic Church - Pope Leo I, Francis of Assisi, Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Queen Mary I of England, etc.<br />
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5. The Church at Sardis -- The Protestant Church - Anselm of Canterbury, William Tyndale, King James I of England, Charles Spurgeon, etc.<br />
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6. The Church at Philadelphia -- The friendship (Evangelical) Church - Queen Victoria, George Muller, Edward Backhouse, Oswald Chambers, etc.<br />
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7. The Church at Laodicea -- The modern comfortable (Emergent) Church  - King Henry VIII of England, Westcott and Hort, C. S. Lewis, etc.</p>
  
<p>The false and compromised [emergent - worldly] churches of today are content in not leaving Egypt behind, content and desirous to still be in Egypt and of Egypt [i.e. edited Egyptian NT bible texts (codex Alexandrinus, codex Sinaiticus) and Saint Catherine's Monastery at Mt. Sinai, Egypt - modern man's artificial version of the biblical Exodus]. Even though Mt. Sinai in Egypt [not the real Mt. Sinai of Arabia (Galatians 4:25)] is in a distant and deserted corner of Egypt and though it has a slight appearance of a godly religion it's still Egypt, it's still the world and it is still going to perish.</p>
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<p><b>Note:</b> what was important to Justin Martyr was that he had known and was connected to someone who he presumed had known an Apostle. Justin Martyr was witnessed to by a very elderly man who instructed Justin Martyr to start in the faith not by reading the Christian New Testament but by reading the Jewish Old Testament.</p>
  
<p>Yes, we as Christians are still in the world and yes, we as Christians are to have a positive Christian effect on the world as we Christians contribute positively to the world but in our Christian reality we are not of this world.</p>
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<p>Ambrose Bishop of Milan, Italy "A Father of the Modern (Governmental) Church System" consecrated on December 7, 374 A.D.</p>
  
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<p>Saint Ambrose of Milan was a founder in the 3rd Church era the Church at Pergamos the legal governmental church era.</p>
  
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
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<p>Saint Monica the mother of Saint Augustine (baptized by Ambrose) was actually a member of the 2nd Church era Church of Smyrna -- The martyred persecuted Church before joining with Ambrose in Milan.</p>
  
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<p><b>Also Note:</b> Queen Mary I of England was an exceptional and gifted Catholic leader. The problem was not with her as a leader [as was so often the case especially at certain times during the ancient early Christian era Roman Empire] it was that the Church era [time in general] had shifted an moved on and the Protestant era had begun.</p>
  
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<p>Recap: <b>The 7 Church Letters of Revelation from Jesus Christ</b></p>
  
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<p>1. The Church at Ephesus -- The teaching instructing Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by a personal knowledge of Jesus<br />
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2. The Church at Smyrna -- The martyred persecuted Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by total commitment even to death<br />
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3. The Church at Pergamos -- The worldly government Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by current worldly status<br />
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4. The Church at Thyatira -- The Roman Catholic Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by works i.e. Penance, Priests, Saint worship, Purgatory<br />
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5. The Church at Sardis -- The Protestant Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by knowledge i.e. creeds, confessions, statements<br />
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6. The Church at Philadelphia -- The friendship (Evangelical) Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by a personal relationship with Jesus<br />
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7. The Church at Laodicea -- The modern comfortable (Emergent) Church  - Faith in Jesus exhibited by self-acceptance [i.e I accept the way I am and the way I live my life so Jesus must accept me this way also]</p>
  
<h2>March 2</h2>
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<p>&nbsp;</p>
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<p><center><big>6th Church Era - The English Society of Friends<br />A Major Evangelical Sect</big></center></p>
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<p>The Religious Society of Friends: Doctrines and Practices ..., Publication date 1870<br />
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by Edward Backhouse [https://archive.org/details/religioussociet00backgoog Online Book]</p>
  
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<p>Early Church History to the Death of Constantine, Publication date 1884<br />
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by Edward Backhouse [https://archive.org/details/earlychurchhist00tylogoog Online Book]</p>
  
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<p>&nbsp;</p>
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<p><b>Biographical Preface of Edward Backhouse by Dr. Thomas Hodgkin</b></p>
  
<h3>Mephibosheth</h3>
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<p>As the following work may come into the hands of some who were not personally acquainted with its Author, it is necessary to devote a few pages to a sketch of his life and character. Those who knew Edward Backhouse of Sunderland, will never forget either the man or that fresh and vigorous Christianity which was the keynote of his life. But for the sake of others an attempt must be made to give an outline, however imperfectly, of the manner in which he served his own generation by the will of God before he fell asleep and was "laid with his fathers."</p>
  
   
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<p>He was the son of Edward and Mary Backhouse, and was born at Darlington in 1808. A resident from early boyhood at Sunderland, of which place he became one of the foremost citizens, he was thoroughly identified in his interests with the busy, stirring life of the North of England. He was not himself, however, actively engaged in commerce. Although a partner in collieries [coal mining], and in the extensive banking business with which the name of his family has been so long connected, he took little, if any share in the practical management of these businesses, having desired from the time of his early manhood to keep his hands free for philanthropic and religious work.</p>
<h4>Mephibosheth's Lame Walk</h4>
 
  
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<p>He was an eager and diligent student of natural history, a frequent traveler, and a landscape painter of considerable merit. Though not cultivating the graces of a professed orator, he could always be relied on to make a plain, vigorous, straightforward speech, with a heartiness which never failed to win the ear of a popular assembly. He was a rather keen, but not bitter politician, on the Liberal side, but never sought a seat in Parliament, whither he could certainly have gone as representative of Sunderland if he had desired to do so.</p>
  
<p>Mephibosheth is granted by King David the right to sit at his table as a son.</p>
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<p>His whole life was coloured by his enthusiastic adoption of the principles of that portion of the Christian Church to which his ancestors for many generations had belonged; the Society of Friends. During a considerable part of his life he occupied a conspicuous position as a minister among them. It is  generally known that in their body there are no paid religious ministers, but the work of preaching and of pastoral visitation is discharged by such members of the society as may feel themselves commissioned by the Unseen Head of the Church to undertake it. After one of these volunteers has preached in the "meetings for worship" for a while, if his services meet with the approval of the congregation, it is the custom to "acknowledge" him. Ministers thus acknowledged acquire a certain official position, but still are in no sense a clergy distinct from the laity around them, but only members of the body, whose gift happens to be of a kind which brings them into somewhat greater prominence than their brethren.</p>
  
<blockquote><p>And Jonathan, [King] Saul's son, had a son [a grandson to King Saul] that was lame of his feet. He was five years old when the tidings [news of death] came of Saul and Jonathan out of Jezreel, and his nurse took him up, and fled: and it came to pass, as she made haste to flee, that he [Mephibosheth] fell, and became lame. And his name was Mephibosheth. ~ 2 Samuel 4:4</p></blockquote>
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<p>Edward Backhouse used to refer his own conversion to the thirtieth year of his age. His life had been always pure and unblameable according to man's judgment. After this time it became more conspicuously devoted to the service of Christ; yet it was not till fourteen years after this time that he commenced work as a minister. In the interval his religious labours were chiefly of the kind which Friends call "eldership," and which consists in accompanying the ministers on their missionary journeys, advising them as to their spiritual course, and discriminating between the ministers whose gifts claim encouragement and eventual recognition, and those who seem to have mistaken their vocation. In 1852 he began to preach in the assemblies of
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Friends, and after two years' probation was "recognized" as a minister, which position he occupied
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for the remaining twenty-five years of his life.</p>
  
<p>Mephibosheth was not only unable to walk he was also unable to receive of the goodness that King David had bestowed upon him. King David had granted that Mephibosheth be as a son among the Royal family yet Mephibosheth rejected King David's edict for his life and instead appropriated unto himself the self-designated title of worthless servant.</p>
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<p>His preaching was very characteristic of the man, with no elaborate oratory, but a fine natural flow of language and a certain character of manly strength and earnestness in every discourse. His favourite topic of exhortation, especially in later years, was, "Press on, do not be satisfied with infancy or childhood in the Christian life. It is time now that you were full grown men and women in Christ Jesus, with all the power to overcome which this mature life should bring to you." The happiness of the Christian believer was another favorite theme, both in his conversation and his sermons. In speaking of his life after his conversion he says, "The more closely I kept to my faithful Guide, the more I understood the beauty of holiness, the glory of the Lord's delightsome land, the sweetness, the safety and the rest of abiding in Jesus." Those words, "the Lord's delightsome land," are very characteristic both of his life and ministry, and in writing them one seems to hear again the fine tones of that strong and hearty voice impressing, them on his hearers.</p>
  
<blockquote><p>Now when Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan, the son of [King] Saul, was come unto David, he fell on his face, and did reverence. And David said, Mephibosheth. And he answered, Behold your servant! And David said unto him, Fear not: for I will surely show you kindness for Jonathan your father's sake, and will restore you all the land of Saul your father; and you shall eat bread at my table continually. And he bowed himself, and said, What is your servant, that you should look upon such a dead dog as I am? Then the King [David] called to Ziba, Saul's servant, and said unto him, I have given unto your master's son [Mephibosheth the grandson of Saul] all that pertained to Saul and to all his house. You therefore, and your sons, and your servants, shall till the land for him, and you shall bring in the fruits, that your master's son may have food to eat: but Mephibosheth your master's son shall eat bread always at my table. Now Ziba had fifteen sons and twenty servants. Then said Ziba unto the King, According to all that my lord the King has commanded his servant, so shall your servant do. <u>As for Mephibosheth, said the King, he shall eat at my table, as one of the King's sons</u>. And Mephibosheth had a young son, whose name was Micha. And all that dwelt in the house of Ziba were servants unto Mephibosheth. So Mephibosheth dwelt in Jerusalem: for he did eat continually at the King's table; and was lame [unable to walk] on both his feet. ~ 2 Samuel 9:6-13</p></blockquote>
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<p>... It is difficult to describe this part of his character without conveying the impression that his was a self-indulgent life; but this was far from being the case. The sorrows and the sins of great cities, and especially of the great seaport near to which he himself lived, claimed a very large share of his time and thought, and he spent not only money, but health and energy freely in the endeavor to alleviate and reform them. He erected a large mission hall in one of the poorest districts of Sunderland, which became the resort of a large congregation, and was the center of a great Christianizing and civilizing work in a district which had much need of such assistance. In the various operations connected with this place, both on Sundays and weekdays, he took a large personal share. ... THOMAS HODGKIN</p>  
  
<p>The unfaithful servant Ziba betrays Mephibosheth.</p>
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<p><hr width="65%" align="center"></p>
  
<blockquote><p>And when [King] David was a little past the top of the hill [while fleeing Jerusalem from his son Absalom's rebellion], behold, Ziba the servant of Mephibosheth met him, with a couple of asses saddled, and upon them two hundred loaves of bread, and an hundred bunches of raisins, and a hundred of summer fruits, and a bottle of wine. And the King said unto Ziba, What mean you by these? And Ziba said, The asses be for the King's household to ride on; and the bread and summer fruit for the young men to eat; and the wine, that such as be faint in the wilderness may drink. And the King said, And where is [Mephibosheth] your master's son? And Ziba [falsely] said unto the King, Behold, he abides at Jerusalem: for he said, Today shall the house of Israel restore me the kingdom of my father [King Saul]. Then said the King [David] to Ziba, Behold, your are [now the owner of] all that pertained unto Mephibosheth. And Ziba said, I humbly plead to you that I may find grace in your sight, my lord, O King. ~ 2 Samuel 16:1-4</p></blockquote>
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==== Updates: December 7, 2017 ====
  
<p>All of Mephibosheth's grandiose acts of self-degradation and self-sacrifice in the end come to nothing.</p>
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<center><big>Saint Ambrose, Saint Monica and Saint Augustine</big></center>
  
<blockquote><p>And Mephibosheth the son [grandson] of [King] Saul came down [at the return of King David to Jerusalem] to meet the King [David], and [Mephibosheth] had neither dressed [washed] his feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothes, from the day the King departed [Jerusalem] until the day he came again in peace. And it came to pass, when he was come to Jerusalem to meet the King, that the King said unto him, Wherefore went not you with me, Mephibosheth? And he answered, My lord, O King, my servant [Ziba] deceived me: for your servant [Mephibosheth] said, I will saddle me an ass, that I may ride thereon, and go to the King; because your servant is lame. And he [Ziba] has slandered your servant [Mephibosheth] unto my lord the King; but my lord the King is as an angel of God: do therefore what is good in your eyes. For all of my father's house were but dead men before my lord the King: yet did you set your servant among them that did eat at your own table. What right therefore have I yet to cry any more unto the King [Mephibosheth had every right to be heard by the King]? And the King [David] said unto him, Why speak you any more of your [self-abasement] matters? I have said, You and Ziba divide the land. And Mephibosheth [a person who never understood the goodness of the Kingdom of David and could never bring himself to receive any unmerited kindness] said unto the King, Yes, let him take all, forasmuch as my lord the King has come again in peace unto his own house. ~ 2 Samuel 19:24-30
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Ambrose Bishop of Milan, Italy "Father of the Modern (Governmental) Church System" consecrated on December 7, 374 A.D.
</p></blockquote>
 
  
<p>Everything that Mephibosheth did at the time seemed to be admirable, humble, righteous, gracious and even religious yet nothing that Mephibosheth did was at any time appropriate or even helpful for any of the moments or any of the many opportunities that existed. In the end Mephibosheth, just as Esau before him had done, gave away the very substance of his own birthright.</p>
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St Ambrose of Milan was a founder in the 3rd Church era the Church at Pergamos the legal governmental church era.
  
<p><b>Conclusion:</b> we are going to look a little bit more into the life, events and decisions of Mephiboshet just to see what we can learn and discern in our own Christian Walk.</p>
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St Monica the mother of St Augustine (baptized by Ambrose) was actually a member of the 2nd Church era Church of Smyrna -- The martyred persecuted Church before joining with Ambrose in Milan.
  
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When Augustine rejected Christianity in his youth it was the persecuted Church era Christianity of his mother Monica that he was rejecting. The early persecuted Church practiced what today we would call a Pentecostalism mixed with pagan practices.
  
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
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In Milan the Bishop Ambrose rebuked the practices of (grave vigils - for those martyred) that Monica and her friends were practicing in Milan. Augustine was impressed that Ambrose rebuked the practice and again decided to consider Christianity.
  
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Ambrose and many of his era including Augustine had rejected the Judeo/Christian model of the early Church and were looking to practice a Platonism/Christian model (i.e. the "School of Plato" including both the Gnosticism of Plato and the Philosophy of Aristotle) of Christianity.
  
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Pope Leo I (400-461 AD) is loosely considered to be the first Pope of the 4th Church era the Church at Thyatira -- The Roman Catholic Church.
  
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Judeo/Christian would come back into practice in the 6th Church era with the Church at Philadelphia -- The friendship (Evangelical) Church.
  
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<b>Note:</b> the church at Rome "Vatican" didn't exist in the early Church years. The Council of Nicea was primarily hosted and represented by the stronger more influential Eastern Churches. The Church of Rome sending only two Presbyters and no Bishops to the very important Council of Nicea.
  
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<small>by David Anson Brown</small>
  
<h2>March 3</h2>
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Who was St Ambrose of Milan? [https://youtu.be/p3M80rbfM3E YouTube]
  
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Augustine (Part 1) [https://youtu.be/5XplwbTqzSc YouTube]
  
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Augustine (Part 2) [https://youtu.be/cI-DYrWLVsg YouTube]
  
<h3>Ittai and Barzillai</h3>
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The 7 Churches Eras of Christianity [http://www.davidansonbrown.site/Common-Christian-Community-Devotional.html#November Daily Christian Devotional]
  
   
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<hr width="65%" align="center">
<h4>Ittai the Gittite and Barzillai the Gileadite</h4>
 
  
<p>In contrast to Mephibosheth several Gentiles including Ittai and Barzillai did overstep their boundaries and surpassed their roles in life by aiding and assisting King David during a very perilous time for the King.</p>
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==== Updates: December 6, 2017 ====
  
<p>Ittai joins King David in exile.</p>
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<center><big>Excellent News!</big></center>
  
<blockquote><p>And there came a messenger to David, saying, The hearts of the men of Israel are after Absalom. And David said unto all his servants that were with him at Jerusalem, Arise, and let us flee; for we shall not else escape from Absalom: make speed to depart, lest he overtake us suddenly, and bring evil upon us, and strike the city with the edge of the sword. And the King's servants said unto the King, Behold, your servants are ready to do whatsoever my lord the King shall appoint. And the King went forth, and all his household after him. And the King left ten women, which were concubines, to keep the house. And the King went forth, and all the people after him, and tarried in a place that was far off. And all his servants passed on beside him; and all the Cherethites, and all the Pelethites, and all the Gittites, six hundred men which came after him from Gath, passed on before the King. <u>Then said the King to Ittai the [Gentile] Gittite</u>, Wherefore go you also with us? return to your place, and abide with the [Gentile] King: <b>for you are a stranger, and also an exile</b>. Whereas you came but yesterday, should I this day make you go up and down with us? seeing I go where I may, return you, and take back your brethren: mercy and truth be with you. And <u>Ittai answered the King</u>, and said, As the LORD lives, and as my lord the King lives, surely in what place my lord the King shall be, whether in death or life, even there also will your servant be. And David said to Ittai, Go and pass over. And Ittai the Gittite passed over, and all his men, and all the little ones that were with him. And all the country wept with a loud voice, and all the people passed over: the King also himself passed over the brook Kidron (John 18:1), and all the people passed over, toward the way of the wilderness. ~ 2 Samuel 15:13-23</p></blockquote>
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President Trump's speech was exceptionally well implemented. It couldn't possibly have been given with any more meaning, compassion and impactful importance then what the President delivered. Well done President Trump! ~ David Anson Brown
  
<blockquote><p>When Jesus had spoken these words, He went forth with His disciples over the brook Kidron (Cedron), where was a garden [the Garden of Gethsemane], into the which He entered, and His disciples. ~ John 18:1</p></blockquote>
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Trump to Announce Jerusalem as Capital of Israel<br />
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The Jerusalem Post [http://www.jpost.com/Israel-News/Trump-to-announce-Jerusalem-as-capital-of-Israel-515795 Article]
  
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US to recognise Jerusalem as Israel's capital<br />
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BBC [http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-42246564 Article]
  
<p><b>Note:</b> Ittai is a type of Christian in that he is himself an exile and a stranger.</p>
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Nettanyahu on Trump's Jerusalem Declaration: Our National, Historical Identity Being Recognized Today<br />
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Haaretz [https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-1.827146 Article]
  
<p>Barzillai and other Gentiles give supplies to King David.</p>
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Five things to watch in Trump's Jerusalem speech<br />
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Yahoo [https://www.yahoo.com/news/five-things-watch-trumps-jerusalem-speech-213352426.html Article]
  
<blockquote><p>And it came to pass, when David was come to Mahanaim, that [several Gentiles] Shobi the son of Nahash of Rabbah of the children of Ammon, and Machir the son of Ammiel of Lodebar, and <u>Barzillai the Gileadite</u> of Rogelim, Brought beds, and basons, and earthen vessels, and wheat, and barley, and flour, and parched corn, and beans, and lentils, and parched vegetables, And honey, and butter, and sheep, and cheese of cattle, for [King] David, and for the people that were with him, to eat: for they said, The people is hungry, and weary, and thirsty, in the wilderness. ~ 2 Samuel 17:27-29</p></blockquote>
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President Trump: US Recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's Capital 12/06/2017 [FULL SPEECH]<br />
 
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Live Stream TV News [https://youtu.be/OAKxZeFc8Jk YouTube]
<p>King David blesses Barzillai at their departure.</p>
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The Czech Republic follows Trump's lead and recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's capital<br />
<blockquote><p>And Barzillai the Gileadite came down from Rogelim, and went over Jordan [river] with the King [David], to conduct [help] him [King David] over Jordan [and back into Israel]. Now Barzillai was a very aged man, even fourscore years old: and he had provided the King of sustenance while he lay at Mahanaim; for he was a very great man. And the King said unto Barzillai, Come you over with me, and I will feed you with me in Jerusalem. And Barzillai said unto the King, How long have I to live, that I should go up with the King unto Jerusalem? I am this day fourscore [80] years old: and can I discern between good and evil? can your servant taste what I eat or what I drink? can I hear any more the voice of singing men and singing women? wherefore then should your servant be yet a burden unto my lord the King? Your servant will go a little way over Jordan with the King: and why should the King recompense it me with such a reward? Let your servant, I pray you, turn back again, that I may die in mine own city, and be buried by the grave of my father and of my mother. But behold your servant Chimham; let him go over with my lord the King; and do to him what shall seem good unto you. And the King answered, Chimham shall go over with me, and I will do to him that which shall seem good unto you: and whatsoever you shall require of me, that will I do for you. And all the people went over Jordan. And when the King was come over, the King kissed Barzillai, and blessed him; and he returned unto his own place. ~ 2 Samuel 19:31-39</p></blockquote>
+
Business Insider [http://www.businessinsider.com/czech-republic-trump-jerusalem-israel-capital-2017-12 Article]
 
+
 
+
<hr width="65%" align="center">
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 4</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>Mephibosheth's Errors</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>Mephibosheth's Errors are the Same Errors that we Christians Repeat Today</h4>
 
 
 
<p><b>Unfamiliar with the Bible</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>Mephibosheth sat at the table of King David who was known as The Sweet Psalmist of Israel, King David going back to his days as a boy shepherd wrote almost the entirety of the Book of Psalms. Yet, Mephibosheth though he sat at King David's table he didn't seem to be familiar with any of King David's written words. Mephibosheth was a stranger and an exile to the written Words of God, the Bible.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>A Lack of a Healthy Prayer Life</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>Mephibosheth didn't have a healthy prayer life or possibly any prayer life. A good prayer life reveals that we are more than just worthless servants to God, we are in fact cherished Sons and Daughters of God.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>The Missing Fellowship</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>It is recorded in the Bible that Mephibosheth ate regularly at the table of the King but it isn't recorded that there was actually any fellowship between Mephibosheth and King David, in fact the two men seemed to be complete strangers, totally unknown to each other.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>A lack of Servant Service</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>Mephibosheth had designated himself to be a servant yet he was a servant that seldom if ever served.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>A lack of a Proclamation - Evangelism</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>Mephibosheth maintained such an impartial stance that in the end King David really didn't know what Kingdom Mephibosheth stood for or was a part of whether it was Saul's Kingdom or David's Kingdom.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>A lack of Discernment - Spiritual Warfare</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>Mephibosheth was being misrepresented and taken advantage of by his deceitful servant Ziba yet Mephibosheth was so lacking in discernment and spiritual warfare abilities that in the end he was completely taken advantage of by Ziba.</p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 5</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>The Sweet Psalmist of Israel</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>King David - The Sweet Psalmist of Israel</h4>
 
 
 
<p>The first area of the Christian Walk that we are going look at is the area of Bible knowledge and study.</p>
 
 
 
 
 
<blockquote><p>Now these be the last words of [King] David. David the son of Jesse said, and the man who was raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and <b>The Sweet Psalmist of Israel</b>, said, <u>The Spirit of the LORD spoke by me, and His Word was in my tongue</u>. The God of Israel said, the Rock [Jesus] of Israel spoke to me, He that rules over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. And he shall be as the [resurrection] light of the morning, when the sun rises, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain. Although my house be not so [not in a good order] with God; yet He has made with me an Everlasting Covenant [the Messiah would be a descendant - the Messiah would rule from his Throne], ordered in all things, and sure: for this is all my salvation, and all my desire, although he make it not to grow [it wouldn't happen in the lifetime of King David]. But the sons of Belial shall be all of them as thorns thrust away, because they cannot be taken with hands: But the man that shall touch them must be fenced with iron and the staff of a spear; and they shall be utterly burned with fire in the same place. ~ 2 Samuel 23:1-7</p></blockquote>
 
 
 
<p>Mephibosheth was in a unique position in that he lived and associated with some of the very people who wrote parts of the Bible. Mephibosheth didn't have any of the textual criticism or authentication problems that some people have today. Yet, the ability to read the Psalms from the pen of King David or more likely to hear the Psalms spoken from the lips of King David didn't inspire Mephibosheth to become Biblically informed. Today some people claim that Oh if we just had the original texts from the hands of Moses, Samuel, King David, King Solomon, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, etc. then how easy it would be to read the Bible but history has proven that isn't the case and in actuality people are being saved without the Bible and people with the Bible are perishing.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Mephibosheth lived in the presence and sat at the table with King David. Mephibosheth is also mentioned in the Bible and so are many of his family members, his father Jonathan and his Grandfather King Saul yet Mephibosheth was mostly unfamiliar with the national context of the Nation of Israel and the role that he and his family had in the Divine ordination of Israel.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Conclusion:</b> because of the importance and significance of the Bible in the Christian Walk we are going to take an extended look at the history of the Bible and how the Bible that we have and trust today came into being. In examining the history of the Bible it is our intention that we will be able to recognize the Divine ordination of the Bible scriptures and to discern our part in God's ordained plan for all of mankind.</p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 6</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>Masoretic Text</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>Masoretic Text - Old Testament</h4>
 
 
 
<p>The Masoretic Text (MT) is the authoritative Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible. While the Masoretic Text defines the books of the Jewish canon, it also defines the precise letter-text of these biblical books, with their vocalization and accentuation known as the Masorah.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The <b>MT is widely used as the basis for translations of the Old Testament in Protestant Bibles</b>, and in recent years (since 1943) also for some Catholic Bibles, although the Eastern Orthodox churches continue to use the Septuagint, as they hold it to be divinely inspired. In modern times the Dead Sea Scrolls have shown the MT to be nearly identical to some texts of the Tanakh [Jewish Bible - Christian Old Testament] dating from 200 BC but different from others.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The MT was primarily copied, edited and distributed by a group of Jews known as the Masoretes between the 7th and 10th centuries AD. Though the consonants differ little from the text generally accepted in the early 2nd century (and also differ little from some Qumran texts that are even older), it has numerous differences of both greater and lesser significance when compared to (extant 4th century BC) manuscripts of the Septuagint, a Greek translation (made in the 3rd to 2nd centuries BC) of the Hebrew Scriptures that was in popular use in Egypt and Israel (and that is [allegedly] often quoted in the New Testament, especially by the Apostle Paul).</p>
 
 
 
<p>The Hebrew word mesorah reffers to the transmission of a tradition. In a very broad sense it can refer to the entire chain of Jewish tradition (see Oral law), but in reference to the Masoretic Text the word mesorah has a very specific meaning: the diacritic markings of the text of the Hebrew Bible and concise marginal notes in manuscripts (and later printings) of the Hebrew Bible which note textual details, usually about the precise spelling of words.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The oldest extant manuscripts of the Masoretic Text date from approximately the 9th century CE, and the Aleppo Codex (once the oldest complete copy of the Masoretic Text, but now missing its Torah section) dates from the 10th century.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The Talmud (and also Karaite mss.) states that a standard copy of the Hebrew Bible was kept in the court of the Temple in Jerusalem for the benefit of copyists; there were paid correctors of Biblical books among the officers of the Temple (Talmud, tractate Ketubot 106a). This copy is mentioned in the Aristeas Letter (§ 30; comp. Blau, Studien zum Althebr. Buchwesen, p. 100); in the statements of Philo (preamble to his "Analysis of the Political Constitution of the Jews") and in Josephus (Contra Ap. i. 8).</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 7</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>Septuagint LXX Text</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>Septuagint LXX Text - Old Testament</h4>
 
 
 
<p>The Septuagint, from the Latin word septuaginta (meaning seventy), is a translation of the Hebrew Bible and some related texts into Koine Greek. The title and its Roman numeral acronym "LXX" refer to the legendary seventy Jewish scholars who completed the translation as early as the late 2nd century BC. As the primary Greek translation of the Old Testament, it is also called the "Greek Old Testament". This translation is quoted in the New Testament, particularly in the writings of Paul the Apostle, and also by the Apostolic Fathers and later Greek Church Fathers.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The traditional story is that Ptolemy II sponsored the translation for use by the many Alexandrian Jews who were not fluent in Hebrew but fluent in Koine Greek, which was the lingua franca of Alexandria, Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC until the development of Byzantine Greek around 600 AD.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The Septuagint should not be confused with the seven or more other Greek versions of the Old Testament, most of which did not survive except as fragments (some parts of these being known from Origen's Hexapla, a comparison of six translations in adjacent columns, now almost wholly lost). Of these, the most important are "the three:" those by Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion.</p>
 
 
 
<p>When Jerome [347 AD - September 30, 420 AD] undertook the revision of the Old Latin translations of the Septuagint, he checked the Septuagint against the Hebrew texts that were then available. He broke with church tradition and translated most of the Old Testament of his [Latin] Vulgate from Hebrew rather than Greek. His choice was severely criticized by Augustine, his contemporary; a flood of still less moderate criticism came from those who regarded Jerome as a forger. While on the one hand he argued for the superiority of the Hebrew texts in correcting the Septuagint on both philological and theological grounds, on the other, in the context of accusations of heresy against him, Jerome would acknowledge the Septuagint texts as well. With the passage of time, acceptance of Jerome's version gradually increased until it displaced the Old Latin translations of the Septuagint.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The Eastern Orthodox Church still prefers to use the LXX as the basis for translating the Old Testament into other languages.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 8</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>Rosetta Stone</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>Rosetta Stone - Egypt - Ancient Archeology</h4>
 
 
 
<p>Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, Demotic script [a regional trade language], and Ancient Greek.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The Rosetta Stone is an ancient Egyptian granodiorite stele inscribed with a decree issued at Memphis [Egypt] in 196 BC on behalf of [Greek King] King Ptolemy V. The decree appears in three scripts: the upper text is Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the middle portion Demotic script, and the lowest Ancient Greek. Because it presents essentially the same text in all three scripts (with some minor differences among them), it provided the key to the modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs.</p>
 
 
 
<p>On Napoleon's 1798 campaign in Egypt, the expeditionary army was accompanied by the Commission des Sciences et des Arts, a corps of 167 technical experts (savants). On July 15, 1799, as French soldiers under the command of Colonel d'Hautpoul were strengthening the defences of Fort Julien, a couple of miles north-east of the Egyptian port city of Rosetta (Modern day Rashid), Lieutenant Pierre-François Bouchard spotted a slab with inscriptions on one side that the soldiers had uncovered. He and d'Hautpoul saw at once that it might be important and informed general Jacques-François Menou, who happened to be at Rosetta. The find was announced to Napoleon's newly founded scientific association in Cairo, the Institut d'Égypte, in a report by Commission member Michel Ange Lancret noting that it contained three inscriptions, the first in hieroglyphs and the third in Greek, and rightly suggesting that the three inscriptions would be versions of the same text. Lancret's report, dated July 19, 1799, was read to a meeting of the Institute soon after July 25. Bouchard, meanwhile, transported the stone to Cairo for examination by scholars. Napoleon himself inspected what had already begun to be called la Pierre de Rosette, the Rosetta Stone, shortly before his return to France in August 1799.</p>
 
 
 
<p>After Napoleon's departure, French troops held off British and Ottoman attacks for a further 18 months. In March 1801, the British landed at Aboukir Bay. General Jacques-François Menou, who had been one of the first to see the stone in 1799, was now in command of the French expedition. His troops, including the Commission, marched north towards the Mediterranean coast to meet the enemy, transporting the stone along with other antiquities of all kinds. Defeated in battle, Menou and the remnant of his army retreated to Alexandria [Egypt] where they were surrounded and besieged, the stone now inside the city. He admitted defeat and surrendered on August 30, 1801 AD.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Note:</b> it is important to note that the Aramaic language often touted as being important, influential and widely used in ancient Mesopotamia is not even included on the Rosetta Stone (196 BC) instead the ancient trade language of Demotic script is considered to be regionally more important and is used as the second language on the Rosetta Stone.</p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 9</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>Dead Sea Scrolls</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>Dead Sea Scrolls</h4>
 
 
 
<p>The Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of 972 texts discovered between 1946 AD and 1956 AD at Khirbet Qumran in the West Bank [of ancient Israel]. They were found in caves about a mile inland from the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, from which they derive their name. The texts are of great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the earliest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew [Old Testament] Bible canon, along with extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The Dead Sea Scrolls include entire books of the Old Testament including the famous Isaiah scroll and it has fragments from every book of the Old Testament except from the Book of Esther.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Due to the poor condition of some of the Scrolls, not all of them have been identified. Those that have been identified can be divided into three general groups: (1) some 40% of them are copies of texts from the Hebrew Bible, (2) approximately another 30% of them are texts from the Second Temple Period [Herod's Temple] and which ultimately were not canonized in the Hebrew Bible, like the Book of Enoch, Jubilees, the Book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Sirach, Psalms 152-155, etc., and (3) the remaining roughly 30% of them are sectarian manuscripts of previously unknown documents that shed light on the rules and beliefs of a particular [cult] group or groups within greater Judaism, like the Community Rule, the War Scroll, the Pesher on Habakkuk and The Rule of the Blessing.</p>
 
  
<p>There has been much debate about the origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The dominant theory remains that the scrolls were the product of a sect of Jews living at nearby Qumran called the Essenes, but this theory has come to be challenged by several modern scholars.</p>
+
==== Updates: November 24, 2017 ====
  
<p><b>Qumran-Essene Theory</b></p>
+
<center><big>Christian Church History</big></center>
  
<p>The view among scholars, almost universally held until the 1990s, is the "Qumran-Essene" hypothesis originally posited by Roland Guérin de Vaux and Józef Tadeusz Milik, though independently both Eliezer Sukenik and Butrus Sowmy of St Mark's Monastery connected scrolls with the Essenes well before any excavations at Qumran. The Qumran-Essene theory holds that the scrolls were written by the Essenes, or by another Jewish sectarian group, residing at Khirbet Qumran. They composed the scrolls and ultimately hid them in the nearby caves during the Jewish Revolt sometime between 66 and 68 AD. The site of Qumran was destroyed and the scrolls never recovered.</p>
+
The Ancient Roman world [https://youtu.be/Sa_E9QBHe30 YouTube]
  
<p>A number of arguments are used to support this theory.</p>
+
Constantine the Great [https://youtu.be/W0GCJfhjEYw YouTube]
  
<p>There are striking similarities between the description of an initiation ceremony of new members in the Community Rule and descriptions of the Essene initiation ceremony mentioned in the works of Flavius Josephus - a Jewish-Roman historian of the Second Temple Period.</p>
+
Apostolic Fathers [https://youtu.be/az4sztb0Tlc YouTube]
  
<p>Josephus mentions the Essenes as sharing property among the members of the community, as does the Community Rule.</p>
+
Christian Apologists and Early Heresies [https://youtu.be/vXJIbvsb00s YouTube]
  
<p>During the excavation of Khirbet Qumran, two inkwells and plastered elements thought to be tables were found, offering evidence that some form of writing was done there. More inkwells were discovered nearby.</p>
+
Worship in the Didache [http://tinysa.com/sermon/22215855460 SermonAudio]
  
<p>De Vaux called this area the "scriptorium" based upon this discovery.</p>
+
<hr width="65%" align="center">
  
<p>Several Jewish ritual baths (Hebrew: miqvah) were discovered at Qumran, which offers evidence of an observant Jewish presence at the site.</p>
+
==== Updates: November 12, 2017 ====
  
<p>Pliny the Elder (a geographer writing after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD) describes a group of Essenes living in a desert community on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea near the ruined town of 'Ein Gedi.</p>
+
<center><big>Church Creeds, Confessions and Councils</big></center>
  
<p>The Qumran-Essene theory has been the dominant theory since its initial proposal by Roland de Vaux and J.T. Milik. Recently, however, several other scholars have proposed alternative origins of the scrolls.</p>
+
Understanding Christian Church History!
  
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
+
Creeds and Councils: What are they? [https://youtu.be/xMz5MiM4iww YouTube]
 +
Council of Constantinople [https://youtu.be/WrlR1aFODDI YouTube]
 +
Council of Chalcedon [https://youtu.be/tFfNFJOppsM YouTube]
 +
Great Schism of 1054 A.D. [https://youtu.be/Q_s9Rcsg5UI YouTube]
  
 +
<b>The Protestant Reformation</b>
  
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
+
Martin Luther and the Heidelberg Disputation [https://youtu.be/0kj5igoDedw YouTube]
 +
Luther's Reformation Breakthrough [https://youtu.be/IXpX1Gy4vYA YouTube]
 +
The Importance of the Reformation [https://youtu.be/Pn0QlENHlrQ YouTube]
  
 +
<b>500th anniversary of the Protestant Reformation</b>
  
 +
Movie: Luther (2003)<br />
 +
During the early 16th Century [Oct. 31, 1517 AD] idealistic German monk Martin Luther, disgusted by the materialism in the church, begins the dialogue that will lead to the Protestant Reformation. Luther 2003 Movie Trailer [https://youtu.be/GYyP5a_BD90 YouTube]
  
 +
Kennedy Classics - The Reformation: Then and Now [https://youtu.be/K9skIjKHNSE YouTube]
  
 +
Hundreds expected to attend celebration of 500th anniversary of Protestant Reformation<br />
 +
CJonline.com [http://cjonline.com/news/local/life/2017-10-26/hundreds-expected-attend-celebration-500th-anniversary-protestant Article]
  
<h2>March 10</h2>
+
Discovery Institute fellow: The Protestant Reformation, 500 years on<br />
 +
NewsOK [http://newsok.com/discover-institute-fellow-the-protestant-reformation-500-years-on/article/5569828 Article]
  
 +
John Wycliffe the Morning Star of the Reformation<br />
 +
ThirdMill [http://thirdmill.org/newfiles/ra_mclaughlin/CH.McLaughlin.Wyclif.html Article]
  
 +
FoxNews: The Reformation, led by Luther, failed. Here's how we could finally reunite the Christian church [http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2017/10/29/reformation-led-by-luther-failed-heres-how-could-finally-reunite-christian-church.html Article]
  
<h3>Christian New Testament Bible</h3>
+
Saint Anselm of Canterbury<br />  
 +
Wikipedia [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anselm_of_Canterbury Article]
  
   
+
<b>Note:</b> Anselm of Canterbury is credited with changing the church focus from a Catholic Works doctrine to a Protestant Knowledge doctrine.
<h4>The Christian New Testament Bible Scriptures</h4>
 
  
<p>The Christian New Testament Bible as we have it today comes essentially from two text manuscript families.</p>
+
<b>The 7 Church Letters of Revelation from Jesus Christ</b>
  
 +
1. The Church at Ephesus -- The teaching instructing Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by a personal knowledge of Jesus<br />
 +
2. The Church at Smyrna -- The martyred persecuted Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by total commitment even to death<br />
 +
3. The Church at Pergamos -- The worldly government Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by current worldly status<br />
 +
4. The Church at Thyatira -- The Roman Catholic Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by works i.e. Penance, Priests, Saint worship, Purgatory<br />
 +
5. The Church at Sardis -- The Protestant Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by knowledge i.e. creeds, confessions, statements<br />
 +
6. The Church at Philadelphia -- The friendship (Evangelical) Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by a personal relationship with Jesus<br />
 +
7. The Church at Laodicea -- The modern comfortable (Emergent) Church  - Faith in Jesus exhibited by self-acceptance [i.e I accept the way I am and the way I live my life so Jesus must accept me this way also]
  
<p><b>The Textus Receptus (TR) Text Family - KJV</b></p>
+
<hr width="65%" align="center">
  
<p>The Textus Receptus is from the Byzantine Empire previously called Galatia.</p>
+
==== Updates: October 2, 2017 ====
  
<p><b>The Egyptian Text Family - Modern Versions</b></p>
+
<center><big><b>Christmas Day - Savior Day!</b></big><br />
 +
<i>Christmas Day - Savior Day!</i></center>
  
<p>Codex Alexandrinus - translated into the Latin Vulgate by Jerome<br />
+
Approximately the day that Jesus Christ the Savior of the world entered into the world! -- [http://www.davidansonbrown.site/The-Evangelical-Christmas.html The Evangelical Christmas]
Alexandria, Egypt</p>
 
  
<p>Codex Sinaiticus - a close match to the Codex Vaticanus<br />
+
Christmas Day is Monday, December 25<sup>th</sup> 2017
St. Catherine's Monastery in Mount Sinai, Egypt</p>
 
  
 +
<big>Selected Christmas Sermon for 2017</big><br />
 +
Christ The Savior and King -- <small>Luke 1:26-38, Isaiah 9:6, Daniel 7:14</small><br />
 +
<small>Source: [http://archive.org/details/PastorAlfredCapozziChristmasSermon Bloomsburg Community Church 2009]</small>
  
<p><b>Note:</b> even though the Christian Church since the Middle Ages has had the two primary Manuscript families both manuscript families up until the Douay-Rheims Bible translation of 1899 AD, in both the Greek and English version manuscripts were nearly identical matching in about 98.9% of the entire texts. Since 1899 AD with the numerous revisions particularly in the English editions the newer translations only match the previous Greek and English editions somewhere in the neighborhood of 80% to 60% depending on whether considering just the words or also adding the verses as a whole that are effected by the revisions.</p>
+
<hr width="65%" align="center">
  
 +
<center><big>Thanksgiving (Christian Feast of Tabernacles) 2017</big></center>
  
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
+
<i>... that the abundant grace might through the <b>Thanksgiving</b> of many redound to the glory of God</i>
  
 +
Thanksgiving Day is Thursday, November 23<sup>rd</sup> 2017
  
 +
<blockquote>We having the same Spirit of faith, according as it is written, I believed, and therefore have I spoken; we also believe, and therefore speak; Knowing that He which raised up the Lord Jesus shall raise up us also by Jesus, and shall present (in heaven) us with you. For all things are for your sakes, that the abundant grace might through the <b>Thanksgiving</b> of many redound to the glory of God. For which cause we faint not; but though our outward man perish, yet the inward man (soul) is renewed day by day. For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory; While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal. ~ 2 Corinthians 4:13-18</blockquote>
  
 +
Source: [http://www.davidansonbrown.site/thanksgiving_holiday.html The Evangelical Thanksgiving]
  
 +
Kennedy Classics - Pilgrims Give Thanks [https://youtu.be/yeEj-h3vHxo YouTube]<br />
 +
Kennedy Classics - The Pilgram Legacy [https://youtu.be/1Qj03e95Ybg YouTube]
  
<h2>March 11</h2>
+
<hr width="65%" align="center">
  
  
 +
<center><big>Countdown Judeo-Christian Evangelical Feast Schedule 2018</big></center>
  
<h3>The Textus Receptus</h3>
+
Holy Week (Passover) - Friday March 23<sup>rd</sup> 2018 ---> Easter Sunday April 1<sup>st</sup> 2018
  
   
+
Pentecost (Shavuot) - May 20<sup>th</sup> 2018<br />
<h4>The Textus Receptus (TR) Byzantine Text Family</h4>
+
Feast of Trumpets (Rosh Hashanah) - Sunset on Sunday, September 9<sup>th</sup> ---> Tuesday, September 11<sup>th</sup> (IST)<br />
 +
Thanksgiving (Feast of Tabernacles) - Thursday, November 22<sup>nd</sup> 2018<br />
 +
Christmas Day 'Savior Day' - The Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) - Tuesday, December 25<sup>th</sup> 2018
  
<p>The Textus Receptus is the text that has been used for 2,000 years by Christians. This is also the text that agrees with more than 95% of the Bible Manuscripts in Koine (common) Greek.  It is known by other names, such as the Traditional Text, Majority Text, Byzantine Text, or Syrian Text.</p>
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<b>Note:</b> Rosh Hashanah the Jewish Feast is observed every year by Judaism. The Christian fulfillment of Rosh Hashanah the Feast of Trumpets happens only once [when God the Father calls the Bride of the Son of God the Christian Church into Heaven]. Likewise there is only one Christian Holy Week (Passover) Feast fulfilled in Jesus Christ and only one Pentecost (Shavuot) fulfilled in the Holy Spirit. ~ David Anson Brown
  
<p>In his essay Texual Criticism, Dr. Thomas Cassidy writes: "The Traditional text of the New Testament has existed from the time of Christ right down to the present. It has had many different names down through the years, such as Byzantine Text, Eastern Text, Received Text, Textus Receptus, Majority Text, and others. Although no complete Bible manuscripts have survived which would allow us to date the Traditional text to the first century, there is a strong witness to the early existence and use of the Traditional text by the early church in its lectionaries."</p>
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<center><span style="color: #004b77; font-family: Calibri; font-size: medium;">The Eight Old Testament Holy Feasts of Leviticus Chapter 23</span></center>
  
<p>In his excellent book, Truth Triumphant: The Church in the Wilderness, Benjamin Wilkinson writes, "The Protestant denominations are built upon that manuscript of the Greek New Testament sometimes called  Textus Receptus, or the Received Text. It is that  Greek New Testament from which the writings of the Apostles in Greek have been translated into English, German, Dutch and other languages. During the dark ages the  Received Text was practically unknown outside the Greek Church. It was restored to Christendom by the labours of that great scholar Erasmus. It is altogether too little known that the real editor of the Received Text was Lucian. None of Lucian's enemies fails to credit him with this work. Neither Lucian nor Erasmus, but rather the Apostles, wrote the Greek New Testament. However, Lucian's day was an age of apostasy when a flood of depravations was systematically attempting to devastate both the Bible manuscripts and Bible theology. Origen, of the Alexandrian college, made his editions and commentaries of the Bible a secure retreat for all errors, and deformed them with philosophical speculations introducing casuistry and lying. Lucian's unrivalled success in verifying, safeguarding, and transmitting those divine writings left a heritage for which all generations should be thankful."</p>
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<span style="color: #004b77; font-family: Calibri; font-size: medium;">Holy Convocations, A Statute Forever, All Generations</span>
  
<p><small>Source: 1611kingjamesbible.com</small></p>
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Schedule of The Lord's 8 Holy Feast Days --- Spring Feasts: Holy Week is comprised of the four <b>Salvation Feasts</b> {Sabbath (Rest), The Lord's Passover, Unleavened Bread, and Firstfruits (Easter)} --- Pentecost (Shavuot) [Acts 2:1 - Church Age] is the Middle Feast: The <b>Sanctification Feast</b> --- The Fall Feasts: The three <b>Redemption Feasts</b> are comprised of {Feast of Trumpets (Rosh Hashanah) possibly the Rapture dates of the Christian Church, Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), and Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot)}
  
<p>Textus Receptus (Latin: "Received Text") is the name subsequently given to the succession of printed Greek texts of the New Testament which constituted the translation base for the original German Luther Bible, the translation of the New Testament into English by William Tyndale [Tyndale Bible], the King James Version [KJV-AV 1611], and most other Reformation-era New Testament translations throughout Western and Central Europe. The series originated with the first printed Greek New Testament, published in 1516-a work undertaken in Basel by the Dutch Catholic scholar and humanist (i.e. professionalism) Desiderius Erasmus. Detractors criticize it for being based on only some six manuscripts, containing between them not quite the whole of the New Testament. The missing text [the last six verses of Revelation chapter 22] was back-translated from the [Latin] Vulgate. Although based mainly on late manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type, Erasmus' edition differed markedly from the classic form of that text, and included some missing parts back translated from the Latin Vulgate.</p>
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<center><span style="color: #004b77; font-family: Calibri; font-size: medium;">The Eight Holy Feasts of Leviticus Chapter 23</span></center>
  
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
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<b>Salvation Feasts</b> (Spring Feasts) - Jesus' First Coming
  
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1. Sabbath (Rest) - Saturdays - fulfilled (Holy Week) at the Triumphal Entry of Jesus into Jerusalem
  
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
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2. The Lord's Passover - 14th day of Nisan - fulfilled (Holy Week) at the Last Supper
  
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3. Unleavened Bread - 15th day of Nisan - fulfilled (Holy Week) on the Cross
  
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4. Firstfruits [Born Again] (Easter) - first Sunday after the Feast of The Lord's Passover - fulfilled (Holy Week) in the Resurrection
  
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<b>Sanctification Feast</b> (Summer Feast or Middle Feast) - The work of the Holy Spirit
  
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5. Pentecost (Shavuot) Acts 2:1 - 50 Days (7 Sabbaths + 1 day) from the Sabbath Day before the Feast of Firstfruits or the 7th Sunday (49 days) after the Feast of Firstfruits (Easter Sunday) - currently in progress
  
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<b>Final Redemption Feasts</b> (Fall Feasts) - Jesus' Second Coming
  
<h2>March 12</h2>
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6. Feast of Trumpets (Rosh Hashanah)
  
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7. Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)
  
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8. Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot)
  
<h3>The Egyptian Texts</h3>
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<center><span style="color: #004b77; font-family: Calibri; font-size: medium;">Christian Feast Days 2018</span></center>
  
   
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Holy Week (Passover) - Friday March 23, 2018 ---> Easter Sunday April 1, 2018
<h4>The Egyptian Text Family</h4>
 
  
<p><b>Codex Alexandrinus</b></p>
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The Feast of Pentecost (Shavuot) - Sunday May 20, 2018
  
<p>The Codex Alexandrinus (London, British Library) is a 5th-century manuscript of the Greek Bible, containing the majority of the Septuagint and the New Testament. It is one of the four Great <u>uncial codices</u> [using only capital letters - i.e. modern forgeries]. Along with the Codex Sinaiticus and the Vaticanus, it is [claimed by modern scholars to be] one of the earliest and most complete manuscripts of the Bible. Wettstein designated it in 1751 AD by [the] letter A, and it was the first manuscript to receive thus a large letter as its designation.</p>
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The Fall Feasts (Rosh Hashanah) - Sunday Sept. 9-11, 2018 at sundown in Jerusalem, Israel<br />
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Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) - Tuesday Sept. 18-19 at sundown in Jerusalem, Israel
  
<p>It derives its name from Alexandria [Egypt] where it resided for a number of years before it was brought by the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch Cyril Lucaris from Alexandria to Constantinople. Then it was given to Charles I of England in the 17th century. Until the later purchase of the Codex Sinaiticus, it was the best manuscript of the Greek Bible deposited in Britain. Today, it rests along with Codex Sinaiticus in one of the showcases in the Ritblat Gallery of the British Library. A full photographic reproduction of the New Testament volume (Royal MS 1 D. viii) is available on the British Library's website.</p>
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Christmas Day 'Savior Day' - Tuesday December 25, 2018
  
<p>As the text came from several different traditions, different parts of the codex are not of equal textual value. The text has been edited several times since the 18th century.</p>
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<center><span style="color: #004b77; font-family: Calibri; font-size: medium;">The Rapture of the Christian Church</span></center>
  
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The Rapture [the end of the current Christian Church Age - the Church is called into Heaven] and [on] the Jewish Feast of Trumpets.
  
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
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The Rapture and the Feast of Trumpets  [https://youtu.be/sVQr-a8nJtI Youtube]
  
<p><b>Codex Sinaiticus</b></p>
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Note: There are actually 8 prescribed Feast Days not 7 in Leviticus Chapter 23. The Feast Day of Sabbath [the Triumphal Entry (Palm Saturday) of Jesus Entering into Jerusalem for our Rest is often omitted by modern teachers]. The 7 Feast days comes from an ancient Alexandria, Egypt spiritualist teaching of the scriptures in equating the Feast Days of Israel with the 7 lamp bulbs of the Temple candlestick and therefore one of the 8 Feast Days had to be subtracted to get to the 7 to match the Temple lampstand. The 7 Feast Days is not a Biblical teaching it is an extra-biblical teaching. The 8 Feast Days is the correct Biblical teaching.
  
<p>Codex Sinaiticus (London, Brit. Library) or "Sinai Bible" is one of the four great uncial codices, an ancient, handwritten copy of the Greek Bible. The codex is a celebrated historical treasure.</p>
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Rosh Hashanah the Jewish Feast is observed every year by Judaism. The Christian fulfillment of Rosh Hashanah the Feast of Trumpets happens only once [when God the Father calls the Bride of the Son of God the Christian Church into Heaven]. Likewise there is only one Christian Holy Week (Passover) Feast fulfilled in Jesus Christ and only one Pentecost (Shavuot) fulfilled in the Holy Spirit.
  
<p>The codex is an Alexandrian text-type manuscript written in the 4th century in uncial letters on parchment. Current scholarship considers the Codex Sinaiticus to be one of the best Greek texts of the New Testament, along with that of the Codex Vaticanus. Until the discovery by Tischendorf [Lobegott Friedrich Constantin (von) Tischendorf (January 18, 1815 - December 7, 1874)] of the Sinaiticus text, the Codex Vaticanus was unrivaled.</p>
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Countdown: 2017 Feast of Trumpets (Jewish Rosh Hashanah) starts at sundown on Wednesday September 20th until sundown on Friday September 22nd.
  
<p>The Codex Sinaiticus came to the attention of scholars in the 19th century at the Greek Orthodox Monastery of Mount Sinai, with further material discovered in the 20th and 21st centuries. Although parts of the Codex are scattered across four libraries around the world, most of the manuscript today resides within the British Library. Since its discovery, study of the Codex Sinaiticus has proven to be extremely useful to scholars for critical studies of biblical text.</p>
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[http://www.the-jesus-realm.com/ The-Jesus-Realm.com]
  
<p>Originally, the Codex contained the whole of both Testaments. Approximately half of the Greek Old Testament (or Septuagint) survived, along with a complete New Testament, plus the Epistle of Barnabas, and portions of The Shepherd of Hermas.</p>
 
  
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
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<hr width="65%" align="center">
  
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==== Updates: October 30, 2017 ====
  
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
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<center><big>Harvest Festival - Halloween - Reformation Day</big></center>
  
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<b>Jesus Christ the Lord of the Living</b>
  
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Shortly before his crucifixion, Jesus was questioned by the Sadducees about the concept of a resurrection. In order to demonstrate that there will be a future resurrection from the dead, Jesus told them: "But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken to you by God, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living." (Mt. 22:31-32)
  
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"However, among the heathen Druids, Samhain or Saman, is the lord of the dead and that lord is none other than Satan himself! Therefore, when people celebrate the dead, they unknowingly honor the devil!"
  
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It is important to understand what Jesus meant by these profound words "God is not the God of the dead, but of the living." The Sadducees to whom Jesus was speaking did not believe in a resurrection. They also accepted only the Torah as holy scripture. With this in mind, Jesus quoted the Torah (Ex. 3:6) to prove that a resurrection would one day occur. He did this by illustrating that long after the death of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, God continued to refer to Himself as their God: "I am the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob," not "I was the God..."
  
<h2>March 13</h2>
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The point Jesus was making was that although these patriarchs were dead (Heb. 11:13), they will live again in the resurrection, as will all of God’s people (Dan. 12:2; Lk 14:14; Jn 5:28; Rev. 20:4-6). Although these men were dead, they were as good as alive at that moment because God’s promise of a resurrection is immutable (Rom. 4:17).
  
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With this understanding, Jesus’ words take on greater meaning. The God of the Bible is the GOD OF THE LIVING, not the God of the dead! To worship the true God, we should not celebrate rites dedicated to the dead.
  
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<b>Who is the Lord of the Dead?</b>
  
<h3>Shepherd of Hermas</h3>
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However, among the heathen Druids, Samhain or Saman, is the lord of the dead and that lord is none other than Satan himself! Therefore, when people celebrate the dead, they unknowingly honor the devil!
  
   
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<b>Fall/Harvest Festival versus Halloween?</b>
<h4>The Hoax Letter - The Shepherd of Hermas (Satan)</h4>
 
  
<p>Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria [Egypt], addressed this problem on Jan. 7, 367 AD, when he wrote his annual Easter letter to his churches. It was a landmark letter because it contained the same list of 27 books of the New Testament that are found in our Bibles today. So far as we know, Athanasius was the first Christian leader to compile a list of New Testament books exactly as we know them today. -- [Origen (Origen Adamantius 182-254 AD) actually collected and codified the 27 book NT we have today and he preceded Athanasius by over a century.]</p>
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Best Answer: Every year, millions of children throughout the world celebrate the custom of Halloween. During this celebration, they dress up in costumes, parade through neighborhoods knocking on doors, and declare the words "trick or treat," expecting to receive candy or some sort of gift. But is Halloween something Christians should celebrate? Is this the kind of festival Jesus Christ would want us to observe?
  
<p>Here are portions of Athanasius' letter, in which he lists the books of the Old and New Testaments that he considered authoritative. ...</p>
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Today, Halloween is celebrated on the evening of All Hallows or All Saints Day. Because days were customarily reckoned as beginning at sunset, Halloween was celebrated in anticipation of November 1, which was dedicated to the Lord of the Dead. Halloween is founded on a fear of the spirits of the dead possessing those who are alive. This fear is driven by a belief that man has an immortal soul. It is important to understand that the Bible clearly declares that only God has immortality at this time. The apostle Paul, when writing to Timothy about Jesus Christ, said, "Who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; Whom no man hath seen, nor can see: to Whom be honour and power everlasting. Amen." (1 Tim. 6:16)
  
<p><small>Source: gci.org</small></p>
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First, understand that although Halloween professes to be a Christian holiday, it is anything but Christian. This custom was celebrated by the pagan world centuries before the New Testament Church was ever founded and it was not introduced into the professing Christian world until centuries after the deaths of the apostles. In fact, if you search the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, you will not find a single line advocating the observance of this holiday or anything like it. On the contrary, God condemns such practices throughout the scriptures.
  
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<b>A Strange Superstition</b>
  
<p><b>Pope Gelasius I condemned the book The Shepherd of Hermas around 500 A.D.</b></p>
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Halloween is one of the strangest holidays mankind celebrates. It is an amazing paradox, an unusual mixture of Christian terms and ancient pagan religious rites. Moreover, despite the technological and intellectual advancements our society has made, it still clings to ignorance of the past. As a result, we celebrate ancient superstitions by partaking in pagan rites, dressing up as witches, goblins, ghosts, skeletons, and demons.
  
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What is this holiday? Where did it come from and why is it celebrated? It certainly did not come from the Bible or the early Christian church raised up by Jesus Christ and the apostles (Mt. 16:13-17). Consider what authorities say regarding the origin and practice of Halloween.
  
<p>When one examines the statements made by some of the earliest [fringe] Church fathers it is clear that many were of the opinion that The Shepherd was an authoritative work. For example, both Irenaeus (bishop of Lyons in 177 A.D.) and Clement of Alexandria (born 150 A.D.) cite The Shepherd as Scripture. Likewise, Cyprian, born to pagan parents early in the third century but converted to Christianity about 246 A.D., and eventually rose to the position of bishop of Carthage, cites The Shepherd as divine Scripture. Hippolytus of Rome (170-235 A.D.), whom Bruce calls considers as the greatest scholar of his age in the west, quotes The Shepherd in his writings and also The Didache and The Letter of Barnabas. Bruce also observes that Origen (185-254 A.D.) felt that The Shepherd of Hermas, along with The Didache and The Letter of Barnabas, should be considered as Scripture. Nevertheless, it appears that despite Origin's [Origen] initial acceptance of these works as authoritative writings, after he moved to Caesarea and discovered that these books were not accepted as authoritative writings, he apparently exercised greater reserve towards them. With specific regard to Origin's comments on The Shepherd, Schaff explains that he recognised that there were others in the Church who judged the book less favourably than himself.</p>
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Ralph Linton, on page four of his book, Halloween Through Twenty Centuries, explains the connection between the current practice of Halloween and a pagan rite practiced by the ancient Druids.
  
<p>Even though The Shepherd [supposedly] enjoyed widespread acceptance as an inspired writing by many in the early Church there were some who not only viewed the book as being 'less favourable' than Origin [Origen] but went as far as being in hostile opposition to it. Unquestionably, the most vocal opponent of The Shepherd in the early Church was Tertullian (160-220 A.D.). On account of his extreme moral convictions, in later life, Tertullian became involved with the strict sect of the Montanists. Consequently, he came to believe the teaching that serious sins after baptism were unforgivable. This belief therefore led Tertullian to charge The Shepherd with being too lax in its approach to repentance and even goes as far as referring to it as the "Shepherd of the adulterers". He designates the book as apocryphal, and rejects it with contempt, as favouring anti- Montanistic opinions. Nevertheless, Crombie observes that in his words of criticism Tertullian unknowingly reveals that it was regarded by many in the Church as Scripture.</p>
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"The American celebration rests upon Scottish and Irish folk customs which can be traced in direct line from pre-Christian times. Although Halloween has become a night of rollicking fun, superstitious spells, and eerie games that people take only half seriously, its beginnings were quite otherwise. The earliest Halloween celebrations were held by the Druids in honor of Samhain, Lord of the Dead, whose festival fell on November 1."
  
<p>By the fourth century it appears that The Shepherd, along with many other books that had been disputed, was gradually beginning to be separated from the books that would form the New Testament canon. Church historian, Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea from 314 to his death in 339, lists three categories by which to distinguish the various writings in existence in the early Church. These are as follows: Those that are universally acknowledged and without dispute; those that are disputed; and the spurious. For Eusebius, The Shepherd falls without any hesitation into the third category as a work that should be included among other spurious works as The Acts of Paul, The Apocalypse of Peter, The Epistle of Barnabus, and The Teachings of the Apostles. Nevertheless, Eusebius also recognised that while some excluded The Shepherd from the accepted books others still regarded it as quite an important and significant writing especially for those who were in need of instruction in the rudimentary elements of the faith. Furthermore, he also recognises that some of the most ancient of writers refer to it and that it was often publicly read in churches.</p>
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Further, the Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition, Volume 12 says: "It was a Druidic belief that on the eve of this festival, Saman, lord of death, called together the wicked souls that within the past 12 months had been condemned to inhabit the bodies of animals..." (pp. 847-858)
  
<p>Even though Eusebius placed The Shepherd among the spurious writings it is evident that during his day the book was still enjoying widespread popularity and was still considered by some as having equal, or at the least near equal authority with other New Testament writings. This is illustrated in the Codex Sinaiticus, dated at around the middle of the fourth century, and contains The Shepherd of Hermas and The Epistle of Barnabas at the end of a complete New Testament. Kenyon observes how both books enjoyed almost equal authority with the New Testament for a long period of time (clearly apparent from their inclusion in the Codex Sinaiticus) but were nevertheless eventually excluded from the canon.</p>
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The Yearbook of English Festivals by Dorothy Gladys Spicer adds the following: "All Hallows' Eve or All Hallow E'en, with its tradition of witches, ghosts, hobgoblins and spirits, its games and incantations, still is a gay time for pranks and parties in many North country homes. Fun-loving Americans have borrowed from their British ancestors many Hallow E'en games such as apple-bobbing, nut roasting and tossing of apple parings. Transplanted to the New World soil, the old practices have become revitalized, and currently are observed with more enthusiasm than in the country of their birth."
  
<p>In the year 367 AD, in his Easter Letter, Athanasius writes of the books that the church have accepted as having divine canonical status out of a concern to distinguish them from the many apocryphal and non-canonical books that were in circulation. With this concern in mind Athanasius specifically lists the 27 books of the New Testament as alone being authoritative writings which he solemnly warns that no man should add to or take away from. In his letter Athanasius also addresses other popular books that he recognises as writings that the early leaders in the Church encouraged new converts to read for instruction but which should be identified as not belonging to the canon. The Shepherd is mentioned as belonging to this category of books along with other non-canonical writings. Even though in his Easter Letter Athanasius clearly designated The Shepherd as outside the inspired canon he freely quotes from it throughout his writings and letters and even calls it a "...most edifying book..."</p>
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"To ancient Druids, the end of October commemorated the festival of the waning year, when the sun began his downward course and ripened grain was garnered from the fields." "Samhain, or 'Summer's End,' as this feast to the dying sun was called, was celebrated with human sacrifice, augury and prayers; for at this season spirits walked, and evil had power over souls of men."
  
<p>It would seem that Athanasius' words carried considerable significance because by the end of the fourth century and throughout the fifth century The Shepherd loses much of its popularity and respect within the Church. Jerome (about 345- 420 A.D.) categorises The Shepherd, along with other books, as not belonging to the canon; and Schaff observes that Ambrose (339-397 A.D.) and Augustine (354-430 A.D.) simply seem to ignore it. However, it was with the decree of Pope Gelasius I (about 500 A.D.) which condemned the book as apocryphal that The Shepherd apparently fell into entire neglect. This is illustrated by the fact that after its condemnation the Greek text even disappeared for a number of centuries. It was only in the middle of the nineteenth century, when the Greek text of The Shepherd re-emerged unexpectedly that a renewed interest in it was awakened among scholars of early Christianity. Today The Shepherd is no longer given the high esteem with which some of the early Christians considered it but instead it is regarded as a work of antiquarian interest in a similar way to the pictures and sculptures of the catacombs.</p>
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"Not until the fourth century did the pagan vigil for the god of light give way to All Hallows, the mass for Christian saints; and not until the tenth, did the Druids' death feast become All Souls' the day of prayer for souls that had entered rest. Cakes for the dead were substituted for human sacrifice, fortune-telling for heathen augury, lighted candles for the old Baal fires."
  
<p>Reasons for the Eventual Exclusion of The Shepherd from the New Testament Canon. Kelly observes that while the broad outline of the New Testament canon was settled by the end of the second century, different localities continued to maintain their different traditions, and some places, such as Alexandria in Origen's time, appear to have been less partial to a set canon than others. It appears that a process gradually came into operation in the early Church whereby such popular books as The Shepherd were eventually separated from the writings that the Church recognised as being truly inspired. Kelly explains this by identifying the main features that eventually came to prevail in distinguishing between the authoritative books and books, such as The Shepherd, that were in due time excluded. It appears that unless a book could be shown to have been written by an apostle, or at least have the authority of an apostle behind it, it was rejected, regardless of how edifying or popular it may have been. Kelly mentions The Shepherd as being among the books that "hovered for a long time on the fringe of the canon, but in the end failed to secure admission" because it lacked the indispensable stamp of apostolic authorship. Some of the books which were later included (Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 Johns, Jude, Revelation) had to wait a considerable time before achieving universal recognition. However, by gradual stages, the Church in both East and West arrived at a common mind as to what writings were truly inspired and those that should be excluded.</p>
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Far from being Christian, Halloween is an old pagan holiday masquerading as though it were one of the customs of the church. Despite this, professing Christians encourage their children to get into the spirit of this pagan custom!
  
<p>In agreement with the conclusions of Kelly, exclusion from the accepted and inspired books of the New Testament on the grounds that a writing could not be presented as an apostolic work is also seen as recorded in the Muratorian Fragment. Dated at about the end of the second century, the Muratorian Fragment specifically mentions The Shepherd as being a book that was excluded because "it was written very recently, in our times by Hermas while his brother Pius was sitting in the chair [i.e. was bishop] of the city of Rome." Smith observes that by the criteria of The Shepherd being outside the time period of the apostles a very popular an exceptional work was excluded from the canon. Even though the book failed the test of apostolic authorship, it was still not totally discarded at this time for the Fragment further describes that the book was "...worthy to be read [in the Church] but not to be included in the number of prophetic or apostolic writings."</p>
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The celebration of Halloween is clearly a relic of pagan times and superstitious tradition. Notice what the authoritative Encyclopedia Britannica says about this holiday.
  
<p>In summery and conclusion it can be said that The Shepherd of Hermas is a book that gives interesting insight into the life of early Christianity in the second century. Although the contents of The Shepherd is certainly not without its theological difficulties this present writer believes, in fairness to the book, that this could be partly due to the fact that Hermas, along with other early Christians were still grappling with many of the finer points of their belief structure, some of which (such as the doctrine of Christ) the Church was still in the process of working out in the fourth century. As to the popularity of The Shepherd there can be no doubt that it was widely accepted among the early Christian congregations, many of whom regarded it as Scripture. Even for those who did not elevate the book to such an esteemed position it was still often referred to throughout their writings and publicly read in the Church. Despite the overall early popularity of the book, by the end of the fourth century, with Athanasius' Easter Letter containing a list of the twenty seven inspired books of the New Testament, and the exclusion of such books as The Shepherd, it appears that the book lost considerable respect. It was not, however, until <b>Pope Gelasius I condemned the book around 500 A.D.</b> that it seemed to fall into entire neglect. It appears that the reason why The Shepherd eventually fell from its celebrated position to one of entire neglect was primarily because it failed the criteria of apostolic authorship.</p>
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"It long antedates Christianity. The two chief characteristics of ancient Halloween were the lighting of bonfires and the belief that this is the one night in the year during which ghosts and witches are most likely to wander about. History shows that the main celebrations of Halloween were purely 'Druidical,' and this is further proved by the fact that in parts of Ireland October 31 is still known as Oidhch Shamhna, 'Vigil of Saman.'"
  
<p><small>Source: spotlightministries.org.uk</small></p>
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Saman or Samhain was the pagan lord of the dead among the Druids. However, this pagan holiday was not celebrated among the Druids alone. It has been and is currently celebrated around the world in different forms, but always with the same general pattern and meaning.
  
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Halloween was also a [ancient] Roman festival. Consider the words of the Encyclopedia Britannica regarding this celebration.
  
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"On the Druidic ceremonies were grafted some of the characteristics of the Roman festival in honor of Pomona held about November 1, in which nuts and apples, representing the winter store of fruits, played an important part."
  
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
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Halloween can be identified in various forms all around the world. It is found in both Christian and non-Christian countries. This is because its origins predate Christianity. Marie Trevelyan, in her book Folk Stories of Wales, writes the following.
  
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"In Wales it was firmly believed that on All Hallows' Eve the spirit of a departed person was to be seen at midnight on every crossroad and every stile." (p. 254)
  
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The practices involved in Halloween are also found in Mexico. In the book Adonis by Frazer, the practice of Halloween is clearly identified, not only by its date, but also by its symbolism and rituals.
  
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"The Miztecs of Mexico believed that the dead came back in the twelfth month of the year, which corresponded to our November. On this day of All Souls the houses were decked out to welcome the spirits. Jars of food and drink were set on a table in the principal room, and the family went out with the torches to meet the ghosts and invite them to enter. Then, returning to the house they knelt around the table, and with their eyes bent on the ground, prayed the souls to accept the offerings." (p. 244)
  
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The elements of this holiday are also found in Cambodia. According to E. Aymonier in the work Notice sur le Cambodge, people would chant, "O all your ancestors, who are departed, deign to come and eat what we have prepared for you, and to bless your posterity and to make it happy." (p. 59)
  
<h2>March 14</h2>
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It is clear that the trappings of Halloween have covered nations around the world. It is equally clear that the practices embraced by this holiday are not Christian at all.
  
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<b>Its Symbols and Superstitions</b>
  
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Understand the shocking truth from history as to why this holiday was celebrated! Ruth Kelly, a recognized authority on Halloween, wrote that because the Druids believed in the immortality of the soul, they concluded that a person’s spirit would pass from them at death and seek out another body in which to reside.
  
<h3>Origen</h3>
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"The pagan Druid priests . . . taught the immortality of the soul, that it passed from one body to another at death . . . They believed that on the last night of the old year the lord of death gathered together the souls of all those who had died in the passing year and had been condemned to live in the bodies of animals, to decree what forms they should inhabit for the next twelve months. He could be coaxed to give the lighter sentence by gifts and prayers." (The Book of Halloween, p. 10)
  
   
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Many Druids believed that black cats were in fact reincarnated human beings, and that the Priest had the ability to divine the future through them. If any crossed your path, however, it would mean they might posses you, a very bad omen. Halloween was celebrated to preserve in the minds of the people the false doctrine that the soul is immortal and that the dead are not really dead. The Celtic peoples believed that the souls of good men went to paradise while the souls of those who did evil were reincarnated in the form of animals for a year. The only chance these disembodied souls had for a decent afterlife was to return on this day of Samhain, and find a human body to possess. It is important to understand that November was regarded by the Celtic people as the beginning of the New Year. Therefore, it was a perfect time for their priests to remember and celebrate the dead.
<h4>Origen Adamantius - Collected and Compiled the various Christian Epistles resulting in the Established Christian New Testament</h4>
 
  
<p>Origen, or Origen Adamantius (Born: 182 AD, Alexandria, Egypt - Died: 254 AD, Tyre, Lebanon), was a scholar and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria, Egypt.</p>
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Source: Fall/Harvest Festival versus Halloween Trick or Treating?<br />
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Yahoo [https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20071027210010AAE4NAF Article]
  
<p><b>Early Years</b></p>
 
  
<p>Origen was born in Alexandria to Christian parents. He was educated by his father, Leonides of Alexandria, who gave him a standard Hellenistic education, but also had him study the Christian Scriptures. The name of his mother is unknown.</p>
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<hr width="45%" align="center">
  
<p>In 202 AD, Origen's father was martyred in the outbreak of the persecution during the reign of Septimius Severus. A story reported by Eusebius has it that Origen wished to follow him in martyrdom, but was prevented only by his mother hiding his clothes. The death of Leonides left the family of nine impoverished when their property was confiscated. Origen, however, was taken under the protection of a woman of wealth and standing; but as her household already included a heretic named Paul, the strictly orthodox Origen seems to have remained with her only a short time.</p>
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<b>Reformation Day and All Saints Day 2014</b>
 
   
 
   
<p>Origen allegedly studied under Clement of Alexandria and was influenced by his thought.</p>
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Yeah, everybody knows 31 October is the day Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses to the church door and started the Reformation. Everybody knows it's Halloween too. What does this mean?
 
 
<p>Eusebius, our chief witness to Origen's life, says that in 203 AD Origen revived the Catechetical School of Alexandria where Clement of Alexandria had once taught but had apparently been driven out during the persecution under Severus. Many modern scholars, however, doubt that Clement's school had been an official ecclesiastical institution as Origen's was and thus deny continuity between the two. But the persecution still raged, and the young teacher visited imprisoned Christians, attended the courts, and comforted the condemned, himself preserved from persecution because the persecution was probably limited only to converts to Christianity. His fame and the number of his pupils increased rapidly, so that Bishop Demetrius of Alexandria, made him restrict himself to instruction in Christian doctrine alone.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Conflict with Demetrius and removal to Caesarea, Israel</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>Demetrius, the bishop of Alexandria, at first supported Origen but later opposed him, disputing his ordination in another diocese (Caesarea Maritima in Palestine). This ecclesiastical turmoil eventually caused Origen to relocate to Caesarea, a move which he characterized as divine deliverance from Egypt akin to that the ancient Hebrews received. About 230, Origen entered on the fateful journey which was to compel him to give up his work at Alexandria and embittered the next years of his life. Sent to Greece on some ecclesiastical mission, he paid a visit to Caesarea, where he was heartily welcomed and was ordained a priest, that no further cause for criticism might be given Demetrius, who had strongly disapproved his preaching before ordination while at Caesarea. But Demetrius, taking this well-meant act as an infringement of his rights, was furious, for not only was Origen under his jurisdiction as bishop of Alexandria, but, if Eastern sources may be believed, Demetrius had been the first to introduce episcopal ordination in Egypt. The metropolitan accordingly convened a synod of bishops and presbyters which banished Origen from Alexandria, while a second synod declared his ordination invalid.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Origen accordingly fled from Alexandria in 231-2 AD, and made his permanent home in Caesarea in Palestine, where his friend Theoctistus was bishop. A series of attacks on him seems to have emanated from Alexandria, whether for his self-castration (a capital crime in Roman law) or for alleged heterodoxy is unknown; but at all events these fulminations were heeded only at Rome, while Palestine, Phoenicia, Arabia, and Achaia paid no attention to them. At Alexandria, Heraclas became head of Origen's school, and shortly afterward, on the death of Demetrius, was consecrated bishop. ...</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Later Years</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>After the death of Maximinus, Origen resumed his life in Caesarea of Palestine. Little is known of the last twenty years of Origen's life. He founded a school where Gregory Thaumaturgus, later bishop of Pontus, was one of the pupils. He preached regularly on Wednesdays and Fridays, and later daily. He taught dialectics, physics, ethics, and metaphysics. He evidently, however, developed an extraordinary literary productivity, broken by occasional journeys; one of which, to Athens during some unknown year, was of sufficient length to allow him time for research.</p>
 
 
 
<p>After his return from Athens, he succeeded in converting Beryllus, bishop of Bostra, from his adoptionistic (i.e., belief that Jesus was born human and only became divine after his baptism) views to the orthodox faith; yet in these very years (about 240) probably occurred the attacks on Origen's own orthodoxy which compelled him to defend himself in writing to Pope Fabian and many bishops. Neither the source nor the object of these attacks is known, though the latter may have been connected with Novatianism (a strict refusal to accept Christians who had denied their faith under persecution).</p>
 
 
 
<p>After his conversion of Beryllus, however, his aid was frequently invoked against heresies. Thus, when the doctrine was promulgated in Arabia that the soul died and decayed with the body, being restored to life only at the resurrection (see soul sleep), appeal was made to Origen, who journeyed to Arabia, and successfully battled this doctrine.</p>
 
 
 
<p>There was second outbreak of the Antonine Plague, which at its height in 251 AD to 266 AD took the lives of 5,000 a day in Rome. This time it was called the Plague of Cyprian. Emperor Decius, believing the plague to be a product of magic, caused by the failure of Christians to recognize him as Divine, began Christian persecutions. This time Origen did not escape the Decian persecution. Eusebius recounted how Origen suffered "bodily tortures and torments under the iron collar and in the dungeon; and how for many days with his feet stretched four spaces in the stocks" Though he did not die while being tortured, he died three years later due to injuries sustained at the age of 69. A later legend, recounted by Jerome and numerous itineraries, places his death and burial at Tyre, but to this little value can be attached.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Note:</b> the extensive writings and documents that comprised Origen's vast and unique library were donated to a local Church at the passing of Origen. Later Ambrose (337-397 AD) the Bishop of Milan, Italy apparently received a large portion of what remained of Origen's personal library.</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 15</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>Eusebius</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>Eusebius of Caesarea, Israel</h4>
 
 
 
 
 
<p>Eusebius (about 260 - 339/340 AD) was a Roman historian, exegete and Christian polemicist. He became the Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine about the year 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon [following in the footsteps of Origen in locating, collecting and categorizing various NT Church epistles] and is regarded as an extremely well learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>The First Church History - After the Book of Acts</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>In his Church History or Ecclesiastical History, Eusebius wrote the first surviving history of the Christian Church as a chronologically-ordered account, based on earlier sources complete from the period of the Apostles to his own epoch. The time scheme correlated the history with the reigns of the Roman Emperors, and the scope was broad. Included were the bishops and other teachers of the Church, Christian relations with the Jews and those deemed heretical, and the Christian martyrs through 324 A.D. Although its accuracy and biases have been questioned, it remains an important source on the early church due to Eusebius's access to materials now lost.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Biblical Textual Criticism</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>[Origen,] Pamphilus and Eusebius occupied themselves with the textual criticism of the Septuagint text of the Old Testament and especially [collected epistles] of the New Testament. An edition of the Septuagint seems to have been already prepared by Origen, which, according to Jerome, was revised and circulated by Eusebius and Pamphilus. For an easier survey of the material of the four Evangelists, Eusebius divided his edition of the New Testament into paragraphs and provided it with a synoptical table so that it might be easier to find the pericopes that belong together. These canon tables or "Eusebian canons" remained in use throughout the Middle Ages, and illuminated [colored artwork] manuscript versions are important for the study of early medieval art, as they are the most elaborately decorated pages of many Gospel books. Eusebius detailed in Epistula ad Carpianum how to use his canons [books].</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Death</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>Much like his birth, the exact date of Eusebius' death is unknown. However, there is primary text evidence from a council held in Antioch that by the year 341 AD, his successor Acacius had already filled the seat as Bishop. Socrates and Sozomen write about Eusebius' death, and place it just before Constantine's son (Constantine II or Constantine the Younger) died, which was in early 340 AD. They also say that it was after the second banishment of Athanasius, which began in mid 339 AD. This means that his death occurred sometime between the second half of 339 AD and early 340 AD.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 16</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>Marcion</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
<h4>Marcion of Sinope</h4>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<p>Marcion of Sinope (85 - 160 AD) was a [heretical] bishop in early Christianity. His theology completely rejected the existence of the deity described in the Jewish Scriptures and in distinction affirmed the Father of Christ to be the true God. He was denounced by the Church Fathers and he chose to separate himself from the Imperial Church. He is often considered to have held [A STRONG OPPIONION - and not] a pivotal role in the development of the New Testament canon.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Marcionism - similar to Gnosticism</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>Marcionism, similar to Gnosticism, depicted the Hebrew God of the Old Testament as a tyrant or demiurge (see also God as the Devil). Marcion was labeled as gnostic by Eusebius.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Marcion's canon [compiled between 130 AD and 140 AD] consisted of [only] eleven [NT] books: A gospel consisting of ten sections from the Gospel of Luke edited by Marcion; and ten of Paul's epistles. All other epistles and gospels of the 27 book New Testament canon were rejected. Paul's epistles enjoy a prominent position in the Marcionite canon, since Paul is credited with correctly transmitting the universality of Jesus' message. Other authors' epistles [Notably: Peter, James, Jude, Matthew and John] were rejected since they seemed to suggest that Jesus had simply come to found a new sect within broader Judaism. Religious tribalism of this sort seemed to echo Yahwism, and was thus regarded as a corruption of the "Heavenly Father"'s teaching.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Marcionism was denounced by its opponents as heresy, and written against, notably by Tertullian, in a five-book treatise Adversus Marcionem, written about 208 A.D. Marcion's writings are lost, though they were widely read and numerous manuscripts must have existed. Even so, many scholars (including Henry Wace) claim it is possible to reconstruct and deduce a large part of ancient Marcionism through what later critics, especially Tertullian, said concerning Marcion.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Note:</b> Marcion's short list of acceptable NT books was a list derived by Marcion and was counter to the already accepted (about 27) NT books of the day. It wasn't a list of what was generally accepted by the early Church as NT cannon it was a list of only what Marcion wanted to be accepted as official NT cannon.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 17</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>Ambrose</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>Ambrose - Archbishop of Milan - Father of Modern Christianity</h4>
 
 
 
<p>Aurelius Ambrosius, better known in English as Saint Ambrose (340 AD - 4 April 397 AD), was an Archbishop of Milan, Italy who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century. He was consular prefect of Liguria and Emilia, headquartered in Milan, before being made Bishop of Milan by popular acclamation in 374 AD. Ambrose was a [Trinitarian in doctrine and] staunch opponent of Arianism.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Ambrose was one of the four original doctors of the [Roman Catholic] Church, and is the patron saint of Milan. He is notable for [baptizing St. Augustine and] his influence on St. Augustine.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Ambrose ranks with Augustine, Jerome, and Gregory the Great [Pope Gregory I], as one of the <b>Latin Doctors</b> of the [Roman Catholic] Church. Theologians compare him with Hilary [Pope from 461-468 AD], who they claim fell short of Ambrose's administrative excellence but demonstrated greater theological ability. He succeeded as a theologian despite his juridical training and his comparatively late handling of Biblical and doctrinal subjects. His spiritual successor, St. Augustine, whose conversion was helped by Ambrose's sermons, owes more to him than to any writer except Paul.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Ambrose's intense episcopal consciousness furthered the growing doctrine of the Church and its sacerdotal ministry, while the prevalent asceticism of the day, continuing the Stoic and Ciceronian training of his youth, enabled him to promulgate a lofty standard of Christian ethics. Thus we have the De officiis ministrorum, De viduis, De virginitate and De paenitentia.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Soon after acquiring the undisputed possession of the Roman empire, Theodosius [Roman Emperor Theodosius I] died at Milan in 395 AD, and two years later (April 4, 397 AD) Ambrose also died. He was succeeded as Bishop of Milan by ["old but good"] Simplician (320-401 AD). Ambrose's body may still be viewed in the Church of S. Ambrogio in Milan, where it has been continuously venerated.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Note:</b> during the lifetime of Ambrose, Augustine and Jerome the greater Christian Church transitioned from Greek as the common language to Latin as the common written and spoken language.</p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 18</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>Jerome</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>Jerome - Translated the Greek Codex Alexandrinus into the Latin Vulgate</h4>
 
 
 
<p>Jerome (347 - September 30, 420 AD) was a Latin Christian priest, confessor, theologian and historian, who also became a Doctor of the Church. He was the son of Eusebius, of the city of Stridon, on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia. He is best known for his translation of the Bible into Latin, the Vulgate, and his commentaries on the Gospel of the Hebrews. His list of writings is extensive.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Jerome is the second most voluminous writer (after St. Augustine) in ancient Latin Christianity. In the Roman Catholic Church, he is recognized as the patron saint of translators, librarians and encyclopedists.</p>
 
 
 
<p>He acquired a knowledge of Hebrew by studying with a Jew who converted to Christianity, and took the unusual position (for that time) that the Hebrew, and not the Septuagint, was the inspired text of the Old Testament. The traditional view is that he used this knowledge to translate what became known as the Vulgate, and his translation was slowly but eventually accepted in the Catholic Church. The later resurgence of Hebrew studies within Christianity owes much to him.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Jerome was a scholar at a time when that statement implied a fluency in Greek. He knew some Hebrew when he started his translation project, but moved to Jerusalem to strengthen his grip on Jewish scripture commentary. A wealthy Roman aristocrat, Paula, funded his stay in a monastery in Bethlehem and he completed his translation there.</p>
 
 
 
<p>He began in 382 AD by correcting the existing Latin language version of the New Testament, commonly referred to as the Vetus Latina. By 390 AD he turned to translating the Hebrew Bible from the original Hebrew, having previously translated portions from the Septuagint which came from Alexandria.</p>
 
 
 
<p>He believed that the Council of Jamnia, or mainstream rabbinical Judaism, had rejected the Septuagint as valid Jewish scriptural texts because of what were ascertained as mistranslations along with its Hellenistic heretical elements. He completed this work by 405 AD.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Prior to Jerome's Vulgate, all Latin translations of the Old Testament were based on the Septuagint not the Hebrew. Jerome's decision to use a Hebrew text instead of the previous translated Septuagint went against the advice of most other Christians, including St. Augustine, who thought the Septuagint inspired. Modern scholarship, however, has cast doubts on the actual quality of Jerome's Hebrew knowledge. Many modern scholars believe that the Greek Hexapla is the main source for Jerome's "iuxta Hebraeos" translation of the Old Testament.</p>
 
 
 
<p>For the next 15 years, until he died, Jerome produced a number of commentaries on Scripture, often explaining his translation choices in using the original Hebrew rather than suspect translations. His patristic commentaries align closely with Jewish tradition, and he indulges in allegorical and mystical subtleties after the manner of Philo and the Alexandrian school.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Note:</b> the Septuagint is a somewhat problematic translation [i.e. missing sections] especially when compared to the Hebrew Masoretic Text.</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 19</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>The Alexandrian school</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>The Alexandrian Schools of Pagan, Secular, Occult, Gnosticism and Philosophy</h4>
 
 
 
<p>The Alexandrian school is a collective designation for certain tendencies in literature, philosophy, medicine, and the sciences that developed in the [Greek] Hellenistic cultural center of Alexandria, Egypt during the Hellenistic and Roman periods.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Alexandria was a remarkable center of learning due to the blending of Greek and Oriental influences, its favorable situation and commercial resources, and the enlightened energy of some of the Macedonian Dynasty of the Ptolemies ruling over Egypt, in the final centuries BC. Much scholarly work was collected in the great Library of Alexandria during this time. A lot of epic poetry, as well as works on geography, history, mathematics, astronomy and medicine were composed during this period.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The name of Alexandrian school is also used to describe the religious and philosophical developments in Alexandria after the 1st century. The mix of Jewish theology and Greek philosophy led to a syncretic mix and much mystical speculation. The Neoplatonists devoted themselves to examining the nature of the soul, and sought communion with God. The two great schools of biblical interpretation in the early Christian church incorporated Neoplatonism and philosophical beliefs from Plato's teachings into Christianity, and interpreted much of the Bible allegorically. The founders of the Alexandrian school of Christian theology were Clement of Alexandria and Origen.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>History</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>Alexandria, Egypt founded [as a Greek city in Egypt] by [the Greek] Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) about the time when Greece, in losing her national independence [to Rome], lost also her intellectual supremacy, and was well adapted for becoming the new centre of the world's activity and thought.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Its situation brought it into commercial relations with all the nations lying around the Mediterranean, and at the same time it was the one communicating link with the wealth and civilization of the East. The natural advantages it enjoyed were increased to an enormous extent by the care of the sovereigns of Egypt. Ptolemy Soter (reigned 323-285 BC), to whom Egypt had fallen after the death of Alexander, began to draw around him from Greece a circle of men eminent in literature and philosophy. To these he gave aid for them to carry out their work. Under the inspiration of his friend Demetrius of Phalerum, the Athenian orator, statesman and philosopher, Ptolemy laid the foundations of the great Library of Alexandria and began the search for all written works, which resulted in such a collection as the world has seldom seen. He also built the Museum, in which, maintained by the state, the scholars resided, studied and taught.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Note:</b> Ptolemy II sponsored the translation of the Greek Septuagint (about 275 BC). -- Ptolemy V. commissioned [in Memphis, Egypt] the carving of what became known as the Rosetta Stone (196 BC). -- Cleopatra the daughter of Ptolemy XII was the last Ptolemy to rule in Egypt. Cleopatra died with the Roman Mark Antony at her palace in Alexandria, Egypt in 30 BC.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The Museum, or academy of science, was in many respects not unlike a modern university. The work begun by Ptolemy Soter was carried on by his descendants, in particular by his two immediate successors, Ptolemy Philadelphus and Ptolemy Euergetes. Philadelphus (285-247), whose librarian was the celebrated Callimachus, bought up all Aristotle's collection of books, and also introduced a number of Jewish and Egyptian works. Among these appears to have been a portion of the Septuagint. Euergetes (247-222) increased the library by seizing on the original editions of the dramatists from the Athenian archives, and by compelling all travellers who arrived in Alexandria to leave a copy of any work they possessed.</p>
 
 
 
<p>This intellectual movement extended over a long period of years and can be split into two periods. The first period extends from about 306 to 30 BC, the time from the foundation of the Ptolemaic dynasty to the conquest by the Romans; the second extends from 30 BC to the destruction of the Alexandria Library somethime before or upon the capture of Alexandria by 'Amr ibn al-'As in 641 AD. The clear differences between these two periods explains the variety and vagueness of meaning attaching to the term "Alexandrian School."</p>
 
 
 
<p>In the first period the intellectual activity was of a literary and scientific nature. It was an attempt to continue and develop, under new conditions, the old Hellenic culture. This effort was particularly noticeable under the early Ptolemies. As we approach the 1st century BC, the Alexandrian school began to break up and to lose its individuality. This was due partly to the state of government under the later Ptolemies, partly to the formation of new scholarly circles in Rhodes, Syria and elsewhere. This gradual dissolution was much increased when Alexandria fell under Roman sway.</p>
 
 
 
<p>As the influence of the school was extended over the whole Graeco-Roman world, scholars began to concentrate at Rome rather than at Alexandria. In Alexandria, however, there were new forces in operation which. produced a second great outburst of intellectual life. The new movement, which was influenced by Judaism and Christianity, resulted in the speculative philosophy of the Neoplatonists and the religious philosophy of the Gnostics and early church fathers.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Note:</b> a possible explanation of what happened to the Bible during the Early Christian Church era is that after the passing of the original Apostles the writings were collected, notably by Origen, and brought to Alexandria, Egypt where there was already a considerable interest and history of translating and editing the Jewish Old Testament. Upon the arrival of the NT epistles in Alexandria a few edits were made notably 1st John 5:7 was removed, the removal and replacement of NT Hebrew with Aramaic i.e. Mark 15:33 and the removal of NT "Masoretic Text" quotes were replaced with quotes from the Septuagint  (LXX) text. -- When Origen departed Alexandria, Egypt for his new home in Caesarea, Israel he took with him his library of edited NT epistles. Due to the availability of the "Egyptian Texts" and the constant persecution of the "Galatian-Byzantine Texts" the slightly modified "Egyptian Texts" became the normal Biblical texts that we have today.</p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 20</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>1st John 5:7</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>1st John 5:7 - Possibly the Most Disputed Verse in the Bible</h4>
 
 
 
 
 
<blockquote><p>For there are Three that bear (witness) record in Heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit: and these Three are One. ~ 1 John 5:7</p></blockquote>
 
 
 
<p>Among the most controversial verses of the Bible is what some consider an explicit reference that supports the doctrine of the Trinity, 1 John 5:7-8. Although verse 7 does [supposedly] not appear in any version of the Greek text prior to the ninth century [but this does not take into account the Greek Manuscripts prior to any Alexandrian edits], <b>it (1 John 5:7) appears in most of the Latin manuscripts</b>, especially in the Vetus Itala [Vetus Latina], Old Latin predating Jerome. -- [Note: Jerome used the edited Codex Alexandrinus for his NT translation.]</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Tertullian</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian (160 - 225 AD), was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa. He is the first Christian author to produce an extensive corpus of Latin Christian literature. He also was a notable early Christian apologist and a polemicist against heresy. Tertullian has been called "the father of Latin Christianity" and "the founder of Western theology."</p>
 
 
 
<p>Though conservative, he did originate and advance new theology to the early Church. He is perhaps most famous for being the oldest extant Latin writer to use the term Trinity (Latin, trinitas), and giving the oldest extant formal exposition of a Trinitarian theology. Other Latin formulations that first appear in his work are "three Persons, one Substance" as the Latin "tres Personae, una Substantia" (itself from the Koine Greek "treis Hypostases, Homoousios"). He wrote his trinitarian formula after becoming a Montanist. However, unlike many Church fathers, he was never canonized by the Catholic Church, as several of his later teachings directly contradicted the actions and teachings of the apostles.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
 
 
 
<p>Tertullian quoted the often disputed verse 1 John 5:7 [from texts predating the Alexandrian edits] in about 200 A.D. in his Apology, Against Praxeas.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: chick.com</small></p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 21</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>Carthage</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>Carthage, North Africa</h4>
 
 
 
<p><b>Cyprian</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>Cyprian (200 AD - September 14, 258 AD) was Bishop of Carthage and an important Early Christian writer, many of whose Latin works are extant [remain currently in existence]. He was born around the beginning of the 3rd century in North Africa, perhaps at Carthage, where he received a classical education. After converting to Christianity, he became a bishop in 249 and eventually died a martyr at Carthage.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Not long after his baptism he was ordained deacon, and soon afterward presbyter; and sometime between July 248 and April 249 he was chosen bishop of Carthage, a popular choice among the poor who remembered his patronage as demonstrating good equestrian style, while a portion of the presbytery opposed it, for all Cyprian's wealth and learning and diplomacy and literary talents. Moreover, the opposition within the church community at Carthage did not dissolve during his episcopacy.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Soon, however, the entire community was put to an unwanted test. Christians in North Africa had not suffered persecution for many years; the church was assured and lax. Early in 250 the "Decian persecution" began. Measures were first taken demanding that the bishops and officers of the church sacrifice to the emperor. The proconsul on circuit, and five commissioners for each town, administered the edict; but, when the proconsul reached Carthage, Cyprian had fled.</p>
 
 
 
<p>It is quite evident in the writings of the church fathers from various dioceses that the Christian community was divided on this occasion, among those who stood firm in civil disobedience, and those who buckled, submitting in word or in deed to the order of sacrifice and receiving a ticket or receipt called a "libellus." Cyprian's secret departure from Carthage was interpreted by his enemies as cowardice and infidelity, and they hastened to accuse him at Rome. The Roman clergy wrote to Cyprian in terms of disapproval. Cyprian rejoined that he fled in accordance with visions and the divine command. From his place of refuge he ruled his flock with earnestness and zeal, using a faithful deacon as his intermediary.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Cyprian's works were edited in volumes 3 and 4 of the Patrologia Latina. Besides a number of epistles, which are partly collected with the answers of those to whom they were written, Cyprian wrote a number of treatises, some of which have also the character of pastoral letters.</p>
 
 
 
<p>**His most important work is his "De unitate ecclesiae." In it, he states: "He can no longer have God for his Father who has not the Church for his mother; . . . he who gathereth elsewhere than in the Church scatters the Church of Christ" (vi.); "nor is there any other home to believers but the one Church" (ix.).</p>
 
 
 
<p>The Plague of Cyprian is named after him due to his description of it.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
 
 
 
<p>I will now move on to his arguments concerning whether or not Cyprian quoted "a version" of 1 John 5:7. ...</p>
 
 
 
<p>Since Cyprian wrote the disputed passage [1 John 5:7] in Latin I feel it necessary to list Cyprian's words in Latin. Cyprian wrote, "Dicit dominus, Ego et pater unum sumus (John x. 30), et iterum de Patre, et Filio, et Spiritu Sancto scriptum est, Et tres unum sunt." (The Lord says, "I and the Father are One," and again, of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost it is written: "And the three are One."). This Latin reading is important when you compare it to the Old Latin [Vetus Latina] reading of 1 John 5:7; <i>"Quoniam tres sunt, gui testimonium dant in coelo: Pater, Verbum, et Spiritus sanctus: et hi tres unum sunt."</i> Cyprian clearly says that it is written of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost--"And the three are One." <b>His Latin matches the Old Latin reading identically with the exception of 'hi'.</b> Again, it is important to note that Cyprian said "it is written" when making his remarks. He never indicates, that he is putting some sort of "theological spin" on 1 John 5:7 or 8. There is no other verse that expressly states that the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are 'three in one' outside of 1 John 5:7. If Cyprian was not quoting 1 John 5:7 the question must be asked and answered: What was he quoting?</p>
 
 
 
<p>The matter becomes even more devastating when we take into account another of Cyprian's many statements. When considering issues such as this one before us it is necessary to lay on the table as much of the evidence as one can. Often many of the facts are purposely kept silent due to their damaging testimony. Cyprian writes in another place, <i>"et sanctificatus est, et templum Dei factus ets, quaero cujus Dei? Si Creatoris, non potuit, qui in eum non credidit; si Christi, nec hujus fieri potuit templum, qui negat Deum Christum; si Spiritus Sancti, cum tres unum sunt, quomodo Spiritus Sanctus placatus esse ei potest, qui aut Patris aut Fillii inimicus est?"</i> If he [a person confessing to be a Christian but denying the Tri-Unity of God] was sanctified, he also was made the temple of God. I ask, of what God? If of the Creator; he could not be, because he has not believed in Him. If of Christ; he could not become His temple, since he denies that Christ is God. If of the Holy Spirit; <b>SINCE THE THREE ARE ONE</b>, how can the Holy Spirit be at peace with him who is the enemy either of the Son or of the Father? Here again we see Cyprian stating that "the three are One" (i.e. the Father, Son and Holy Spirit). This I feel is important because it gives us another reference in Cyprian's writings testifying to the fact that he was not merely putting a "theological spin" on 1 John 5:7/8. <b>The fact is 1 John 5:7 was found in Cyprian's [Bible] copies.</b></p>
 
 
 
<blockquote><p>And he fell to the earth, and heard a voice saying unto him, Saul, Saul, why persecute you Me (Jesus)? And he said, Who [Father, Son or Holy Spirit] are thou, Lord? And the Lord said, I am Jesus whom you persecute ... ~ Acts 9:4-5</p></blockquote>
 
 
 
<p>Admittedly, the second quote is not near as 'strong' as the first but when the evidence it presented, without all the conjecture, only one seeking to hide something can ignore the fact that Cyprian knew full well the wording of 1 John 5:7 as found in our Authorized [KJV] Version. This is so evident that even Frederick Scrivener, who adamantly opposed the Comma, was compelled to say, "If these two passages be taken together (the first is manifestly much the stronger), it is surely safer and more candid to admit that Cyprian read ver. 7 in his copies, than to resort to the explanation of Facundus, that the holy Bishop was merely putting on ver. 8 a spiritual meaning (Plain Introduction, p. 405)." I couldn't agree more with the words of Dr. Scrivener! The question then becomes, why do [scholars] continue to espouse this "spiritual meaning/theological spin" hypothesis when this allegation has been refuted for centuries? One can only wonder if the reason behind this charade is not to further conceal the actual evidence and to further mislead the unsuspecting saints.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: avdefense.webs.com</small></p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 22</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>Wycliffe Bible</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>The John Wycliffe English Bible from about 1382 AD to 1395 AD</h4>
 
 
 
<p>John Wycliffe (1320 AD - December 1384 AD) called "The Morning Star of the Reformation".</p>
 
 
 
<p>Wycliffe was also an early advocate for translation of the Bible into the common language. He completed his translation directly from the Vulgate into vernacular English in the year 1382, now known as Wycliffe's Bible. It is probable that he personally translated the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; and it is possible he translated the entire New Testament, while his associates translated the Old Testament. Wycliffe's Bible appears to have been completed by 1384, with additional updated versions being done by Wycliffe's assistant John Purvey and others in 1388 AD and 1395 AD.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Translated into English from Jerome's Latin Vulgate</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>Wycliffe's Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations into Middle English that were made under the direction of, or at the instigation of, John Wycliffe. They appeared over a period from approximately 1382 AD to 1395 AD. These Bible translations were the chief inspiration and chief cause of the Lollard movement, a pre-Reformation movement that rejected many of the distinctive teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. In the early Middle Ages, most Western Christian people encountered the Bible only in the form of oral versions of scriptures, verses and homilies in Latin (other sources were mystery plays, usually conducted in the vernacular, and popular iconography). Though relatively few people could read at this time, Wycliffe's idea was to translate the Bible into the vernacular, saying "it helpeth Christian men to study the Gospel in that tongue in which they know best Christ's sentence".</p>
 
 
 
<p>Long thought to be the work of Wycliffe himself, the Wycliffite translations are now generally believed to be the work of several hands. Nicholas of Hereford is known to have translated a part of the text; John Purvey and perhaps John Trevisa are names that have been mentioned as possible authors. The translators worked from the Vulgate, the Latin Bible that was the standard Biblical text of Western Christianity, and the text conforms fully with Catholic teaching. They included in the testaments those works which would later be called deuterocanonical [extra biblical - Apocryphal books] by most Protestants, along with 3 Esdras which is now called 2 Esdras and Paul's epistle to the Laodiceans.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Wycliffe became deeply disillusioned both with Scholastic theology of his day and also with the state of the church, at least as represented by the clergy. In the final phase of his life in the years before his death in 1384 he increasingly argued for Scriptures as the authoritative centre of Christianity, that the claims of the papacy were unhistorical, that monasticism was irredeemably corrupt, and that the moral unworthiness of priests invalidated their office and sacraments.</p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p>Although unauthorized, the work was popular. Wycliffe Bible texts are the most common manuscript literature in Middle English. More than 250 manuscripts of the Wycliffe Bible survive.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Although Wycliffe's Bible circulated widely in the later Middle Ages, it had very little influence on the first English biblical translations of the reformation era such as those of William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale, as it had been translated from the Latin Vulgate rather than the original Greek and Hebrew; and consequently it was generally ignored in later English Protestant biblical scholarship. The earliest printed edition, of the New Testament only, was by John Lewis in 1731. However, due to the common of surviving manuscripts of Wycliffe's Bible as works of an unknown Catholic translator, this version continued to circulate among 16th-century English Catholics, and many of its renderings of the Vulgate into English were adopted by the translators of the Rheims New Testament. Since the Rheims version was itself to be consulted by the translators working for King James [KJV] a number of readings from Wycliffe's Bible did find their way into the Authorized King James Version of the Bible at second hand.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Note:</b> the only available Bible at that time was Jerome's Latin Vulgate - the Byzantine Textus Receptus (TR) would not come to Europe until after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Also Note:</b> at that time the differences between the Bibles, the old Vetus Latina, Jerome's Latin Vulgate and the soon to be westernized (Byzantine) Textus Receptus was very minimal with only about a 2% discrepancy in the totality of the Bible. -- With the Bible versions being so closely matched some of the work of John Wycliffe carried directly into the later work of William Tyndale and much of Tyndale's work went directly into the KJV translation as 98% of the Bible was undisputed the KJV translators were mainly working to standardize the Bible and correct a few disputed verses of the Bible.</p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 23</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>The Fall of Constantinople</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>The Fall of Roman Constantinople to Turkish Muslims in 1453 AD</h4>
 
 
 
<p>The Fall of Constantinople (Turkish: Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of Constantinople (Istanbul), the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, which occurred after a siege by the invading [Muslims of the] Ottoman Empire, under the command of 21-year-old Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, against the defending army commanded by Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos. The siege lasted from Friday, 6 April 1453 AD until Tuesday, 29 May 1453 AD according to the Julian calendar, when the city fell and was finally conquered by the [Turkish] Ottomans.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The capture of Constantinople (and two other Byzantine splinter territories soon thereafter) marked the end of the Roman Empire, an imperial state which had lasted for nearly 1,500 years. The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople also dealt a massive blow to Christendom, as the Ottoman armies thereafter were free to advance into Europe without an adversary to their rear. After the conquest, Sultan Mehmed transferred the capital of the Ottoman Empire from Adrianople to Istanbul (Constantinople). Several Greek and non-Greek intellectuals fled the city before and after the siege, with the majority of them migrating particularly to Italy, which helped fuel the Renaissance.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The conquest of the city of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire marks, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
 
 
 
<blockquote><p>After this I [Daniel] saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast [Rome], dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and [Rome] it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and [Revised Rome - i.e. starting with Emperor Constantine the Great, he reigned about 306-337 AD - 7th Kingdom] it had ten horns. I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn [Antichrist], before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things. I beheld till the Thrones [Kingdoms] were cast down, and the Ancient of Days [God] did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of His head like the pure wool: His Throne was like the fiery flame, and His wheels [movement] as burning fire. A fiery stream issued and came forth from before Him: thousand thousands [i.e. millions of Saints] ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand [i.e. billions] stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened. I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the [Antichrist] horn spake: I beheld even till the beast [Antichrist] was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame (Revelation 19:20). As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time. ~ Daniel 7:7-12</p></blockquote>
 
 
 
<p><b>Note:</b> the Fall of Constantinople was less an "end of the Roman Empire" and more a downsizing and modernizing of the emergent Holy Roman Empire.</p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 24</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>Johannes Gutenberg</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
<h4>Johannes Gutenberg invented the Mechanical Movable Type Printing Press in 1445 AD</h4>
 
 
 
<p><center><i>In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the structure of society</i></center></p>
 
 
 
<p>Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (1395 - February 3, 1468 AD) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe. His invention of mechanical movable type printing started the Printing Revolution and is widely regarded as the most important event of the modern period. It played a key role in the development of the Renaissance, Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the Scientific Revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Gutenberg was the first European to use movable type printing, in around 1439. Among his many contributions to printing are: the invention of a process for mass-producing movable type; the use of oil-based ink; and the use of a wooden printing press similar to the agricultural screw presses of the period. His truly epochal invention was the combination of these elements into a practical system which allowed the mass production of printed books and was economically viable for printers and readers alike. Gutenberg's method for making type is traditionally considered to have included a type metal alloy and a hand mold for casting type.</p>
 
 
 
<p>In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of information - including revolutionary ideas - transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities; the sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class. Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its people led to the rise of proto-nationalism, accelerated by the flowering of the European vernacular languages to the detriment of Latin's status as lingua franca. In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale, while Western-style printing was adopted all over the world, becoming practically the sole medium for modern bulk printing.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The use of movable type was a marked improvement on the handwritten manuscript, which was the existing method of book production in Europe, and upon woodblock printing, and revolutionized European book-making. Gutenberg's printing technology spread rapidly throughout Europe and later the world.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>The Gutenberg Bible 1454 AD</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>His major work, the Gutenberg Bible [the first Bible printed by machine], has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality. -- Written in Latin, the Gutenberg Bible is an edition of the Vulgate.</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 25</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h3>Desiderius Erasmus</h3>
 
 
 
   
 
<h4>Desiderius Erasmus in 1516 AD, published the Greek (Textus Receptus) New Testament</h4>
 
 
 
<p>Desiderius Erasmus in 1516, published his (Textus Receptus) Greek New Testament - [Note: the (Textus Receptus) was a coalition of various existing Greek Texts aligned to the newly received more ancient Greek texts from the recently fallen region of Constantinople hence the name "Textus Receptus" or simply Texts Received.</p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Desiderius Erasmus</b></p>
 
 
 
<p>Over the years, Erasmus became intimately acquainted with biblical manuscripts available throughout Europe, particularly of the New Test-ament. Because the Word of God is quick and powerful and sharper than any two-edged sword, it is evident as Erasmus began to search the Scriptures, they had a profound effect upon his life. By the time of his death, the theology of Erasmus had shifted closer to that of the Ana-baptists than that of Rome. This will shortly be documented.</p>
 
 
 
<p>As noted above, in 1516, Erasmus published from Basel, Switzer-land, his Greek New Testament which he called the Novum Instru-mentum. In English that means the "New Instrument. Contrary to popular misconception, Erasmus had more than a handful of manu-scripts at his disposal. Preserved Smith, the noted expert on the life of Erasmus, comments, "For the first edition Erasmus had before him ten manuscripts, four of which he found in England, and five at Basle. . . . <b>The last codex was lent him by John Reuchlin . . . (and) appeared to Erasmus so old that it might have come from the Apostolic Age</b>." He was aware of Vaticanus in the Vatican Library and had a friend by the name of Bombasius research that for him (165). He, however, rejected the characteristic variants of Codex Vaticanus which distinguishes itself from the Received Text (RT).</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: av1611.com</small></p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p>Desiderius Erasmus (27 October 1466 AD - 12 July 1536 AD), known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, or simply Erasmus, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist (i.e. professionalism), Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style. He was a proponent of religious toleration, and enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists"; he has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament. These raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. He also wrote On Free Will, The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, and many other works.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Erasmus lived against the backdrop of the growing European religious Reformation; but while he was critical of the abuses within the Church and called for reform, he kept his distance from Luther and Melanchthon and continued to recognise the authority of the pope. Erasmus emphasized a middle way, with a deep respect for traditional faith, piety and grace, and rejected Luther's emphasis on faith alone. Erasmus therefore remained a member of the Catholic Church all his life. Erasmus remained committed to reforming the Church and its clerics' abuses from within. He also held to Catholic doctrines such as that of free will, which some Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of predestination. His middle road approach disappointed and even angered scholars in both camps.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Erasmus died suddenly in Basel in 1536 while preparing to return to Brabant, and was buried in the Basel Minster, the former cathedral of the city. A bronze statue of him was erected in his city of birth in 1622, replacing an earlier work in stone.</p>
 
 
 
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
 
 
 
<p><b>Note:</b> though Erasmus had about a dozen Greek NT text Manuscripts available to him after comparing the various Manuscripts and confirming their uniformity he only heavily used a couple of them to complete his Greek NT Edition the Textus Receptus - not many repetitive Texts are needed if they all say the same thing because they are supposed to say the same thing. Only a couple of reliable Manuscripts were needed in order to combine them into the Greek Textus Receptus that we have today.</p>
 
 
 
 
 
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<h2>March 26</h2>
 
 
 
 
 
  
<h3>William Tyndale</h3>
+
<b>The Origin of All Saints' Day</b>
  
   
+
So when did we start having a Feast of All Hallows on 1 November? Well, we started having a Feast of All Hallows, or Saints, before it was on 1 November! In the Eastern Church, all the saints are collectively remembered on the first Sunday after Pentecost. It really got rolling when the emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire Leo VI (886-911) built a church in honour of his wife when she died, but as she was not a recognised saint he dedicated the church to all the saints, so that she would be included in a commemoration of all saints whether recognised as such or not.
<h4>William Tyndale translated the first English Bible from the Ancient Greek</h4>
 
  
<p>William Tyndale translated the first English Bible from Greek notably using in part the Greek Textus Receptus of Desiderius Erasmus.</p>
+
Source: Reformation Day and All Saints Day<br />
 +
Past Elder [https://pastelder.blogspot.com/2014/10/reformation-day-and-all-saints-day.html Article]
  
<p>William Tyndale (1494-1536 AD) was an English scholar who became a leading figure in Protestant reform in the years leading up to his execution. He is well known for his translation of the Bible into English. He was influenced by the work of Desiderius Erasmus, who made the Greek New Testament available in Europe, and by Martin Luther. While a number of partial and incomplete translations had been made from the seventh century onward, the grass-roots spread of Wycliffe's Bible resulted in a death sentence for any unlicensed possession of Scripture in English-even though translations in all other major European languages had been accomplished and made available. Tyndale's translation was the first English Bible to draw directly from Hebrew and Greek texts, the first English one to take advantage of the printing press, and first of the new English Bibles of the Reformation. It was taken to be a direct challenge to the hegemony of both the Roman Catholic Church and English Laws to maintain church rulings. In 1530 AD, Tyndale also wrote The Practyse of Prelates, opposing Henry VIII's divorce on the grounds that it contravened Scripture.</p>
+
<hr width="45%" align="center">
  
<p>Tyndale had to learn Hebrew in Germany due to England's active Edict of Expulsion against the Jews. He worked in an age where Greek was available to the European scholarly community for the first time in centuries. Erasmus compiled and edited Greek Scriptures into the Textus Receptus - ironically, to improve upon the Latin Vulgate-following the Renaissance-fueling Fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the dispersion of Greek-speaking intellectuals and texts into a Europe which previously had access to none. Sharing Erasmus' translation ideals, Tyndale took the ill-regarded, unpopular and awkward Middle-English "vulgar" tongue, improved upon it using Greek and Hebrew syntaxes and idioms, and formed an Early Modern English basis that Shakespeare and others would later follow and build upon as Tyndale-inspired vernacular forms took over. When a copy of The Obedience of a Christian Man fell into the hands of Henry VIII, the king found the rationale to break the Church in England from the Roman Catholic Church in 1534.</p>
+
<b>Halloween, Scorpio, Reincarnation and the Birth of Astrology</b>
  
<p>In 1535 AD, Tyndale was arrested and jailed in the castle of Vilvoorde (Filford) outside Brussels for over a year. In 1536 he was convicted of heresy and executed by strangulation, after which his body was burnt at the stake. His dying request that the King of England's eyes would be opened seemed to find its fulfillment just two years later with Henry's authorization of The Great Bible for the Church of England-which was largely Tyndale's own work. Hence, the Tyndale Bible, as it was known, continued to play a key role in spreading Reformation ideas across the English-speaking world and eventually, on the global British Empire.</p>
+
If you live in the Northern hemisphere, and if you are lucky enough to reside in a place that boasts four seasons, take a look around and you will see the passionate love-making of Lady Death and Laddie Life. If ever their love affair had an anniversary, it is Oct 31, Halloween. And the product of their illustrious adulation are the twins: Astrology and Science. Since Death and Life are lovers, let me assure you, that you need not be afraid to die, just as you should not fear life. For in nature, mythology, astrology, and science, they are bound together, opposite yet the same, like you and your mirror image.  
  
<p>Notably, in 1611, the 54 independent scholars who created the King James Version, drew significantly from Tyndale, as well as translations that descended from his. One estimate suggests the New Testament in the King James Version is 83% Tyndale's, and the Old Testament 76%. With his translation of the Bible the first ever to be printed in English, and a model for subsequent English translations, in 2002, Tyndale was placed at number 26 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons.</p>
+
<b>Note:</b> what this awkward and inaccurate article is really describing is a type of occultism - i.e. Jewish Kabbalah. October 31st during the day is All Saints Day and Protestant Reformation Day however in the Kabbalah Jewish tradition the new day begins in the evening at sundown. Therefore sundown on October 31st is actually November 1st to an occult Kabbalah observer.
  
 +
Source: Halloween, Scorpio, Reincarnation and the Birth of Astrology<br />
 +
HUFFPOST [https://www.huffingtonpost.com/gahl-eden-sasson/halloween-scorpio-reincar_b_6076744.html Article]
  
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
+
<hr width="45%" align="center">
  
 +
<b>Sundown and Yom Kippur</b>
  
 +
<b>Note:</b> All Jewish holidays begin at sundown because the Jewish people believe that the day begins in the evening and ends the next evening. Yom Kippur begins at sundown on the day before the date specified on the Jewish calendar for the holiday and ends an hour after sunset on the specified date.
  
 +
Refrence [https://www.reference.com/science/time-sundown-yom-kippur-58ab00b02b06978b Article]
  
 +
<hr width="45%" align="center">
  
<h2>March 27</h2>
+
<b>The History Behind Samhain</b>
  
 +
All Hallow Mass<br />
 +
Around the eighth century or so, the Catholic Church decided to use November 1st as All Saints Day. This was actually a pretty smart move on their part – the local pagans were already celebrating that day anyway, so it made sense to use it as a church holiday.
  
 +
All Saints’ became the festival to honor any saint who didn’t already have a day of his or her own. The mass which was said on All Saints’ was called Allhallowmas – the mass of all those who are hallowed. The night before naturally became known as All Hallows Eve, and eventually morphed into what we call Halloween.
  
<h3>King James Version</h3>
+
<b>Note:</b> Samhain would be considered a Kabbalah Occult event.
  
   
+
<b>Also Note:</b> All Saints Day is observed loosely starting from Oct. 31st until the first Sunday in November and commonly as the "Triduum of Allhallowtide" the three days of Oct. 31 - Nov. 2.
<h4>The King James Version 1611</h4>
 
  
<p>The King James Version (KJV), commonly known as the Authorized Version (AV) or King James Bible (KJB), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England begun in 1604 AD and completed in 1611 AD. First printed by the King's Printer Robert Barker, this was the third translation into English to be approved by the English Church authorities. The first was the Great Bible commissioned in the reign of King Henry VIII (1535 AD), and the second was the Bishops' Bible of 1568 AD. In January 1604 AD, King James VI and I convened the Hampton Court Conference where a new English version was conceived in response to the perceived problems of the earlier translations as detected by the Puritans, a faction within the Church of England.</p>
+
The History Behind Samhain<br />
 +
ThoughtCo [https://www.thoughtco.com/about-samhain-history-2562713 Article]
  
<p>King James gave the translators instructions intended to guarantee that the new version would conform to the ecclesiology and reflect the episcopal structure of the Church of England and its belief in an ordained clergy. The translation was done by 47 scholars, all of whom were members of the Church of England. In common with most other translations of the period, the New Testament was translated from Greek, the Old Testament was translated from Hebrew text, while the Apocrypha were translated from the Greek and Latin. In the Book of Common Prayer (1662 AD), the text of the Authorized Version replaced the text of the Great Bible - for Epistle and Gospel readings - and as such was authorized by Act of Parliament. By the first half of the 18th century, the Authorized Version was effectively unchallenged as the English translation used in Anglican and Protestant churches. Over the course of the 18th century, the Authorized Version supplanted the Latin Vulgate as the standard version of scripture for English speaking scholars. Today, the most used edition of the King James Bible, and often identified as plainly the King James Version [and even KJV 1611], especially in the United States, closely follows the standard text of 1769 AD, edited by Benjamin Blayney at Oxford.</p>
+
<hr width="45%" align="center">
  
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
+
<b>All Saints' Day</b>
  
<p><b>Dedication by the Translators to King James</b></p>
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In the Western Christian practice, the liturgical celebration begins at Vespers [an evening usually midweek church service] on the evening of 31 October, All Hallows' Eve (All Saints' Eve), and ends at the close of 1 November. It is thus the day before All Souls' Day, which commemorates the faithful departed. In many traditions, All Saints' Day is part of the triduum of Allhallowtide, which lasts three days from 31 October to 2 November inclusive.
  
<p>TO THE MOST HIGH AND MIGHTY PRINCE JAMES, BY THE GRACE OF GOD,<br />
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Wikipedia [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All_Saints%27_Day Article]
KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND IRELAND, DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, ETC.<br />
 
THE TRANSLATORS OF THE BIBLE WISH GRACE, MERCY, AND PEACE, THROUGH JESUS CHRIST OUR LORD</p>
 
  
<p>Great and manifold were the blessings, most dread Sovereign, which Almighty God, the Father of all mercies, bestowed upon us the people of England, when first he sent Your Majesty's Royal Person to rule and reign over us. For whereas it was the expectation of many, who wished not well unto our Sion, that, upon the setting of that bright Occindental Star, Queen Elizabeth, of most happy memory, some thick and palpable clouds of darkness would so have overshadowed this land, that men should have been in doubt which way they were to walk, and that it should hardly be known who was to direct the unsettled State; the appearance of Your Majesty, as of the Sun in his strength, instantly dispelled those supposed and surmised mists, and gave unto all that were well affected exceeding cause of comfort; especially when we beheld the Government established in Your Highness, and Your hopeful Seed, by an undoubted Title; and this also accompanied with peace and tranquillity at home and abroad.</p>
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<hr width="65%" align="center">
  
<p>But among all of our joys, there was no one that more filled our hearts than the blessed continuance of the preaching of God's sacred Word among us, which is that inestimable treasure which excelleth all the riches of the earth; because the fruit thereof extendeth itself, not only to the time spent in this transitory world, but directeth and disposeth men unto that eternal happiness which is above in heaven. </p>
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==== Updates: July 30, 2017 ====
  
<p>Then not to suffer this fall to the ground, but rather to take it up, and to continue it in that state wherein the famous Predecessor of Your Highness did leave it; nay, to go forward with the confidence and resolution of a man, in maintaining the truth of Christ, and propagating it far and near is that which hath so bound and firmly knit the hearts of all Your Majesty's loyal and religious people unto You, that Your very name is precious among them: their eye doth behold You with comfort, and they bless You in their hearts, as that sanctified Person, who, under God, is the immediate author of their true happiness. And this their contentment doth not diminish or decay, but every day increaseth and taketh strength, when they observe that the zeal of Your Majesty toward the house of God doth not slack or go backward, but is more and more kindled, manifesting itself abroad in the farthest parts of Christendom, by writing in defence of the truth, which hath given such a blow unto that Man of Sin as will not be healed, and every day at home, by religious and learned discourse, by frequenting the house of God, by hearing the Word preached, by cherishing the teachers thereof, by caring for the Church, as a most tender and loving nursing father. </p>
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<p><center><big>God the Holy Spirit ~ Fruit, Gifts, Sanctification</big></center></p>
  
<p>There are infinite arguments of this right Christian and religious affection in Your Majesty; but none is more forcible to declare it to others than the vehement and perpetuated desire of accomplishing and publishing of this work, which now, with all humility, we present unto Your Majesty. For when Your Highness had once, out of deep judgement, apprehended how convenient it was, that, out of the Original sacred Tongues, together with comparing of the labours, both in our own and other foreign languages, of many worthy men who went before us, there should be one more exact translation of the Holy Scriptures into the English tongue; Your Majesty did never desist to urge and to excite those to whom it was commended, that the Work might be hastened, and that the business might be expedited in so decent a manner, as a matter of such importance might justly require. </p>
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<p>"You can have a personal relationship with God." We like to pull this amazing declaration out of our evangelism toolboxes, to focus on the fact that a relationship with God is actually possible for human beings. This fact is at the wondrous heart of biblical, evangelical Christianity.</p>
  
<p>And now at last, by the mercy of God, and the continuance of our labours, it being brought unto such a conclusion, as that we have great hopes that the Church of England shall reap good fruit thereby, we hold it our duty to offer it to Your Majesty, not only as to our King and Sovereign, but as to the principal mover and author of the Work; humbly craving of your most Sacred Majesty, that, since things of this quality have ever been subject to the censures of ill-meaning and discontented persons, it may receive approbation and patronage from so learned and judicious a Prince as Your Highness is; whose allowance and acceptance of our labours shall more honour and encourage us, than all the calumniations and hard interpretations of other men shall dismay us. So that if, on the one side, we shall be traduced by Popish persons at home or abroad, who therefore will malign us, because we are poor instruments to make God's holy truth to be yet more and more known unto the people, whom they desire still to keep in ignorance and darkness; or if, on the other side, we shall be maligned by self-conceited brethren, who run their own ways, and give liking unto nothing but what is framed by themselves, and hammered on their anvil, we may rest secure, supported within by the truth and innocency of a good conscience, having walked the ways of simplicity and integrity, as before the Lord, and sustained without by the powerful protection of Your Majesty's grace and favour, which will ever give countenance to honest and Christian endeavours against bitter censures and uncharitable imputations. </p>
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<p>"You can have a personal relationship with God." We like to pull this amazing declaration out of our evangelism toolboxes, to focus on the fact that a relationship with God is actually possible for human beings. This fact is at the ...</p>
  
<p>The Lord of heaven and earth bless Your Majesty with many and happy days, that, as his heavenly hand hath enriched Your Highness with many singular and extraordinary graces, so You may be the wonder of the world in this latter age for happiness and true felicity, to the honour of that great God, and the good of his Church, through Jesus Christ our Lord and only Saviour.</p>
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<p>However, another word from the above statement also deserves our attention: personal. More than just a modifier of "relationship," "personal" points to the fact that God Himself must be personal in order to relate to us.</p>
  
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<p>How does Almighty God pull off being personal? According to theologian Millard Erickson, "The Holy Spirit is the point at which the Trinity becomes personal to the believer."</p>
  
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
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<p>1. The Spirit is the actual presence of God, active and alive, within Christians. Another theologian wrote, "Though we speak of the Spirit as the third Person [of the Trinity], from the standpoint of experience Spirit is first, because it is the Spirit that enables us to experience God's ... drawing near."</p>
  
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<p>2. Think about all these ideas regarding God the Holy Spirit: personal, active, alive, experiential, and "drawing near." As the very presence of God within us, the Holy Spirit does all sorts of things, among them producing [righteous] fruit, giving gifts, and making [us] holy [Christian Sanctification].</p>
  
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<p>Another thought about [Holy] spiritual fruit is worth mentioning. These nine elements — multiple parts of a singular fruit, like a cluster of grapes — perfectly describe life in the [Holy] Spirit. W. T. Conner, long-time theologian at Southwestern Seminary, phrased it perfectly in saying that the Spirit-filled life is moral and ethical, not "an emotional orgy. ... Paul was no wild enthusiast. His religion [traditional Christianity] always had at its center the element of rational and moral control. Christian character and conduct were the fruit of the [Holy] Spirit."</p>
  
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Source: [http://www.sbclife.net/Articles/2009/08/sla7 sbclife.net]
  
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<hr width="65%" align="center">
  
<h2>March 28</h2>
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==== Updates: July 16, 2017 ====
  
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<center><big>Introduction to Christian Zionism</big></center>
  
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<center><I>Christian Covenant Zionism and Christian Dispensation Zionism</I></center>
  
<h3>Stephanus NT Bible 1550</h3>
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* Christian Covenant Zionism is primarily focused on the future Christian Church - Millennial Reign government, administrations, individual functions, etc.
  
   
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* Christian Dispensation Zionism is primarily focused on the future Jewish Israel - Millennial Reign Temple, government, administrations, etc.
<h4>The Stephanus Greek Textus Receptus 1550 AD Bible</h4>
 
  
<p>Robert Estienne, known as Stephanus (1503-1559 AD), a printer from Paris, edited the Greek (Textus Receptus) New Testament four times, in 1546, 1549, 1550 and 1551, the last in Geneva.</p>
 
  
<p>In 1532, he published the remarkable Thesaurus linguae latinae, and twice he published the entire Hebrew Bible - "one with the Commentary of Kimchi on the minor prophets, in 13 vols. 4to (quarto) (Paris, 1539-43), another in 10 vols. 16mo (sextodecimo) (ibid. 1544-46)." Both of these editions are rare.</p>
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<b>Zionism: Christian Zionism by David Krusch</b><br />
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[http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/christian-zionism jewishvirtuallibrary.org/christian-zionism]
  
<p>Of more importance are his four editions of the Greek New Testament, 1546, 1549, 1550, and 1551, the last in Geneva. The first two are among the neatest Greek texts known, and are called O mirificam; the third is a splendid masterpiece of typographical skill, and is known as the Editio Regia; the edition of 1551 contains the Latin translation of Erasmus and the Vulgate, is not nearly as fine as the other three, and is exceedingly rare. It was in this edition that the division of the New Testament into verses was for the first time introduced.</p>
 
  
<p>A number of editions of the Vulgate also appeared from his presses, of which the principal are those of 1528, 1532, 1540 (one of the ornaments of his press), and 1546. The text of the Vulgate was in a wretched condition, and his editions, especially that of 1546, containing a new translation at the side of the Vulgate, was the subject of sharp and acrimonious criticism from the clergy.</p>
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<b>The International Fellowship of Christians and Jews (IFCJ)</b><br />
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[http://www.ifcj.org/ www.ifcj.org]
  
<p>On his arrival at Geneva, he published a defense against the attacks of the Sorbonne. He issued the French Bible in 1553, and many of John Calvin's writings; the finest edition of the Institutio being that of 1553. His fine edition of the Latin Bible with glosses (1556) contained the translation of the Old Testament by Santes Pagninus, and the first edition of Theodore Beza's Latin edition of the New Testament. He died in Geneva.</p>
 
  
<p><small>Source: wiki.com</small></p>
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<b>Haaretz: Christian Zionism Losing Its Israel Grip on Evangelicals</b><br />
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[http://whtt.org/haaretz-article-exposes-decline-christian-zionism-evan/ whtt.org/haaretz-article-exposes-decline-christian-zionism-evan]
  
<p><b>Note:</b> the 1611 AD King James (New Testament) Bible was translated into English primarily from the existing Textus Receptus family of Greek manuscripts. The 1550 AD Stephanus (Greek New Testament) a NT Bible edited by Robert Estienne using the existing Greek Textus Receptus of Desiderius Erasmus and in making his few changes and additions provides a closely matching KJV Greek NT manuscript.</p>
 
  
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<b>Biblical Christian Zionism (MP3's)</b><br />
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[http://davidpawson.org/resources/series/biblical-christian-zionism davidpawson.org/resources/series/biblical-christian-zionism]
  
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
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<small>Note: the Listen option is one-click but the Download MP3 option brings up a popup screen that also needs to be clicked.</small>
  
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Christian Zionists are charged with being politically dangerous, ... They are also said to be theologically heretical for two reasons.
  
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On the one hand, they [Zionists] <b>teach the very opposite of Replacement theology</b> (the notion that the church has replaced Israel as God’s people to achieve his purpose) which has been part of Christian tradition for centuries.
  
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On the other hand, the Zionist conviction that God has brought Israel back to her own land in our day has become entangled with Dispensational theology, which is largely discredited in Britain but still widely held in America.
  
<h2>March 29</h2>
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These three [MP3] talks are an integral series, aiming to lay a foundation for Biblical Christian Zionism in the New Testament. They expose the differences between this and both Replacement and Dispensational viewpoints, one too anti-Israel and the other too pro-Israel. Given in March 2007 by David Pawson
  
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<hr width="65%" align="center">
  
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==== Updates: July 2, 2017 ====
  
<h3>Tischendorf bible Hoax</h3>
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<center><big>The Protestant Reformation</big></center>
  
   
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When the Protestant Reformation officially occurred on Oct. 31, 1157 AD with the Catholic Monk Martin Luther posting of his Ninety-Five Theses complaints against various Catholic church practices and some abuses. The Protestant Reformation in splitting from the Catholic church actually split into two Protestant factions the Evangelical faction and the Reformed Calvinism faction.
<h4>Constantin von Tischendorf's 1859 AD Codex Sinaiticus, bible Discovery Hoax</h4>
 
  
<p>Lobegott Friedrich Constantin (von) Tischendorf (January 18, 1815 - December 7, 1874) was a noted German Biblical scholar. He deciphered [the code] the Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, a 5th-century Greek manuscript of the New Testament, in the 1840s, and rediscovered the Codex Sinaiticus, a 4th-century New Testament manuscript, in 1859 AD.</p>
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<b>Evangelical Protestant Christianity</b> tends to view a fallen mankind as capable of doing good and generally being pleasing to a Good, Loving, Caring, Faithful and approachable Father God.
  
<p>Constantin von Tischendorf just a few scant years after the dazzling vision, all three versions of the same vision of Joseph Smith Jr., Tischendorf discovered the remarkable Codex Sinaiticus possibly the oldest and rarest NT Manuscript on the face of the earth - if you can believe it, any of the three versions articulated by Tischendorf.</p>
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<b>Calvinism Protestant Christianity</b> tends to view a fallen mankind as unable to please God and tends to see the Father God in a more stern and unapproachable way.
  
<p>LDS First Vision by LDS Prophet and Founder Joseph Smith, Jr. 1832 AD</p>
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The word Protestant means Pro "in favor of" and Testament "witness" the Christian Protestant movement is not an anti-Catholic movement it is a movement that is "in favor" and for primarily three Christian traditions that Christians felt were being neglected or denied by the Catholic church.
  
<p>The First Vision, also called the grove experience, refers to a vision that Joseph Smith, Jr. said he received in the spring of 1820, in a wooded area in Manchester, New York, which his followers call the Sacred Grove. Smith described it as a personal theophany in which he received instruction from God. Smith's followers believe the vision reinforces his authority as the founder and prophet of the Latter Day Saint [LDS] movement. According to an account Smith told in 1838, he went to the woods to pray about which church to join but fell into the grip of an evil power that nearly overcame him. At the last moment, he was rescued by two shining "personages" (implied to be Jesus and God the Father) who hovered above him. One of the beings told Smith not to join any existing churches because all taught incorrect doctrines.</p>
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1. Sola Scripture - the Bible is the only authority for Christian doctrine and the main authority for Christian living.
  
<p>Smith wrote several accounts of the vision beginning in 1832, but none of the accounts was published until the 1840s. Though Smith had described other visions, the First Vision was essentially unknown to early Latter Day Saints; Smith's experience did not become important in the Latter Day Saint movement until the early-20th century, when it became the embodiment of the Latter Day Saint restoration. The First Vision also corroborated distinctive Mormon doctrines such as the bodily nature of God the Father and the uniqueness of Mormonism as the only true path to salvation.</p>
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2. Sola Fida - meaning that "Faith" not our works but Faith in the finished works [cross and resurrection] of Jesus Christ is our primary acceptable entrance into heaven.
  
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3. Sola Sacerdos - interaction between God and mankind is via a "Sacred Priesthood" the Priesthood (1 Peter 2:9) {Royal Melchizedek Priesthood} is available to all Christians at all times by and thru the agency of the Holy Spirit and is not strictly a human appointed priesthood as had developed in the Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches.
  
<p>Piltdown Man Hoax 1912 AD</p>
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<small>by David Anson Brown</small>
  
<p>The Piltdown hoax is perhaps the most famous paleoanthropological hoax ever to have been perpetrated. It is prominent for two reasons: the attention [it] paid to the issue of human evolution, and the length of time, more than 40 years, that elapsed from its discovery to its full exposure [in 1953] as a forgery.</p>
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<hr width="65%" align="center">
  
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==== Updates: June 4, 2017 ====
  
<p><small>Sources: wiki.com</small></p>
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<center><big>Fall Feasts 2017</big></center>
  
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<b>Video:</b> Bride will be Raptured during a Feast of Trumpets "Rosh Hashanah" by Mark Biltz [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cL7En3OJvZU&amp;feature=youtu.be Trumpets YouTube]
  
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
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<b>Feast of Trumpets (Leviticus 23:24)</b>
  
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The two-day Jewish Feast of Trumpets is interesting as it is both the next Biblical Feast (Leviticus 23) in order to be prophetically fulfilled “in their seasons” (Leviticus 23:4) and it is also considered to be the Feast time that provides the possible and even the probable end (i.e. Rapture event) of the current Christian Church Era.
  
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The current New Testament Christian Church started on a Feast Day the (Sunday) Feast of Firstfruits (Easter Sunday). The next Feast the Feast of Trumpets is the start of the Jewish New Year the civil (secular) New Year.
  
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The Christian Church would be considered to end sometime on the two-day Jewish New Year (Feast of Trumpets) Festival in that prophetically the prophetic calendar now switches from the Gentile timeline back to the *secular Jewish timeline in order to eventually complete the prophetic 70th Week (Daniel 9:27) of the famous prophecy of Daniel’s 70 Weeks (Daniel 9:24) prophecy.
  
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*The civil or secular nature of the Jewish New Year is that the New Year in itself does not directly initiate the start of Daniel's 70 Week. The 70th Week is actually initiated slightly later by a set of separate actions and conditions i.e. a Jewish Temple existing in Jerusalem on the Temple Mount and by various political covenants and developments.
  
<h2>March 30</h2>
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<hr width="65%" align="center">
  
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==== Updates: April 21, 2017 ====
  
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<center><b>Evangelical Christianity Explained</b></center>
  
<h3>Douay-Rheims Bible</h3>
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I have recently been studying early-church history including Roman Emperors,  Crusaders, Nights Templers and Spanish Conquistadors. Much of what these groups were doing and attempting to do was.
  
   
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1. Going to Jerusalem attempting to find traditional Christianity [though they often were looking for an artifacts based Christianity]
<h4>The Douay-Rheims Bible a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English</h4>
 
  
<p>The Douay-Rheims Bible is a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English made by members of the English College, Douai, in the service of the Catholic Church. The New Testament portion was published in Reims, France, in 1582, in one volume with extensive commentary and notes. The Old Testament portion was published in two volumes thirty years later by the University of Douai. The first volume, covering Genesis through Job, was published in 1609; the second, covering Psalms to 2 Machabees plus the apocrypha of the Clementine Vulgate was published in 1610. Marginal notes took up the bulk of the volumes and had a strong polemical and patristic character. They offered insights on issues of translation, and on the Hebrew and Greek source texts of the Vulgate. The purpose of the version, both the text and notes, was to uphold Catholic tradition in the face of the Protestant Reformation which up till then had overwhelmingly dominated Elizabethan religion and academic debate. As such it was an impressive effort by English Catholics to support the Counter-Reformation. The New Testament was reprinted in 1600, 1621 and 1633. The Old Testament volumes were reprinted in 1635 but neither thereafter for another hundred years.</p>
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2. Taking that Jerusalem based original Christianity out into the world
  
<p>The Rheims New Testament had an influence on the translators of the King James Version. Afterwards it ceased to be of interest in the [English] Anglican church. The city is now spelled Douai, but the Bible continues to be published as the Douay-Rheims Bible and has formed the basis of some later Catholic Bibles in English.</p>
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This video is a good summary of where modern Christianity should be though granted there are several nuances where the video is wrong i.e. teaching only 7 Feast Days when in actuality there are the 8 Biblical Leviticus chapter 23 Feast Days starting with the often left out "Sabbath Feast Day"  (the Triumphal Entry of Jesus Christ into Jerusalem often taught as Palm Sunday but is actually a Saturday Sabbath event in the Bible).
  
<p><small>Sources: wiki.com</small></p>
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Leaving out the unauthenticated artifacts of times past and instead focusing on the correct Acts 2:1 "one accord" Jerusalem schedule  is a desired and reasonable place for the modern Christian.
  
<p><b>Early Bible Unity</b></p>
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Actually if we neglect the ancient teachings and timelines of the Bible then we are mostly left with modern interpretations of what someone thinks the Bible should say.
  
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One of the safest and best ways to understand the Bible is to do it in the original timeline and context of the ancient Feast Days of Israel.
  
<p>King James Version (1611) - Revelation 5:10 And hast made <u>us</u> unto our God kings and priests: and <u>we</u> shall reign on the earth.</p>
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<center><b>The "Millennial Rein" of Jesus Christ</b><br /><i>the coming Jerusalem centered Kingdom on Earth of Jesus Christ</i></center>
<p>Douay-Rheims (1899) - Revelation 5:10 And hast made <u>us</u> to our God a kingdom and priests, and <u>we</u> shall reign on the earth.</p>
 
  
<p><b>Modern Bible Variances</b></p>
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<b>The Four Dispensations of The Bible's New Testament</b>
  
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In the Apostle Paul's trip to Rome [recorded in the Bible's Book of Acts by the early Church Historian Luke] are some of the most codded and cryptic passages of the Bible's New Testament. Was Luke aided by the Apostle Paul, putting forth the future of the Church Era and an End Time scenario that Christians could glean from to understand events both current and future?
  
<p>Modern Catholic Bible - Revelation 5:10 You made <u>them</u> a kingdom and priests for our God, and <u>they</u> will reign on earth.</p>
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<b>Summary</b>: The Apostle Paul's Journey to Rome - The Four Dispensations of the Times since the 1st Coming of Jesus Christ seem to have been mapped out and enacted throughout Paul's Journey to Rome.
<p>New International Version (NIV) - Revelation 5:10 You have made <u>them</u> to be a kingdom and priests to serve our God, and <u>they</u> will reign on the earth.</p>
 
<p>English Standard Version (ESV) - Revelation 5:10 and you have made <u>them</u> a kingdom and priests to our God, and <u>they</u> shall reign on the earth.</p>
 
  
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1. The Apostles Dispensation (Acts 27:1-5)<br />
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2. The Common Christian Church Age (Acts 27:6-44)<br />
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3. The Martyred Saints of Revelation Tribulation (Acts 28:1-15)<br />
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4. The 1,000 year Millennial Kingdom Reign of Jesus Christ on earth (Acts 28:16-31)
  
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
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Source: [http://www.davidansonbrown.com/Common-Christian-Community-Devotional.html Common Christian Community Daily Devotional]
  
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<b>Recap:</b> the slight problem with the teaching in the video is that the teacher Mark Biltz is using the traditions of men to interpret the Bible instead of using the Bible to interpret the Bible. For example it is the tradition of men that there are only seven Feast Days yet the Bible in Leviticus chapter 23 commands eight Feast Days. As Christians it's imperative that we have an accurate Biblical message derived from the Bible (usually the reliable KJV) and not just the constant parroting of slightly inaccurate teachings that the Christian Church has become mired in.
  
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<small>By David Anson Brown</small>
  
  
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<hr width="65%" align="center">
  
<h2>March 31</h2>
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==== Updates: March 2017 ====
  
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<center>I'm posting this info as generally informative of current events and ideas <br />not as specific future events</center>
  
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<center><font size=3 color=#004b77>The September 23, 2017 Signs in Heaven</font></center>
  
<h3>Pressing On</h3>
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I have been watching some YouTube videos about End Time events. Each new year brings the potential of End Time prophetic events and already 2017 as a year of change has the potential to begin a significant new era. I certainly don't think 2017 is the end of anything and more likely it is the beginning of a new season however with so much change happening so fast it will be a good idea to get familiar with some of these current concepts so they don't surprise us and possibly confuse us all the more. If I see anything else interesting or that is helpful I'll also post it.
  
   
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In the last few years there have been some significant changes in the global society. i.e. Pope Francis (2013), Brexit (2016), Trump (2017). The Bible is mostly centered on Israel and Europe regarding the End Times.
<h4>Pressing on in Our High Calling in Jesus Christ</h4>
 
  
<p>Let's leave Mephibosheth and his unhelpful practices in the pages of history while we ourselves move forward and press on in our High Calling in Jesus Christ.</p>
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I'm not a fan of 1 person prophecy shows. I think that prophecy should be discussed in a group to help provide a better balance and should maintain traditional Protestant Church traditions and creeds. Also taking care not to place America completely front and center in End Times prophecy as that is difficult to do and maintain a traditional Biblical view since the Bible is mostly centered on Israel and Europe regarding the End Times.
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All the best to everyone!<br />
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<small>David Anson Brown</small>
  
<blockquote><p>Blessed are the undefiled in The Way, who walk in the law of the LORD. Blessed are they that keep His Testimonies, and that seek Him with the whole heart. They also do no iniquity: they walk in His ways. You have commanded us to keep Your precepts diligently. O that my ways were directed to keep Your statutes! Then shall I not be ashamed, when I have respect unto all Your commandments. I will praise you with uprightness of heart, when I shall have learned Your righteous judgments. I will keep Your statutes: O forsake me not utterly. Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way? by taking heed thereto according to Your word. With my whole heart have I sought You: O let me not wander from Your commandments. Your word have I hid in mine heart, that I might not sin against You. Blessed are You, O LORD: teach me Your statutes. With my lips have I declared all the judgments of Your mouth. I have rejoiced in <u>The Way</u> of your testimonies, as much as in all riches. I will meditate in Your precepts, and have respect unto Your ways. I will delight myself in Your statutes: I will not forget your word. Deal bountifully with your servant, that I may live, and keep Your Word. Open You mine eyes, that I may behold wondrous things out of Your law. <u>I am a stranger in the earth</u>: hide not Your commandments from me. My soul breaks for the longing that it has unto Your judgments at all times. ~ Psalms 119:1-20</p></blockquote>
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[https://youtu.be/0QceyQk8tcc YouTube] 5 Ways the World Has CHANGED since 58th Inauguration of TRUMP | Can LIBERTY Exist without Religion?<br /><font size=2>Pastor Steve Cioccolanti is declaring the start of global revival. This teaching begins an important series on Good Government called "Is America a Christian Nation?"</font>
  
<blockquote><p>Not as though I had already attained, either were already perfect: but I follow after, if that I may apprehend that for which also I am apprehended of Christ Jesus. Brethren, I count not myself to have apprehended: but this one thing I do, forgetting those things which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are before, I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. ~ Philippians 3:12-14</p></blockquote>
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[https://youtu.be/BfDPmUVBL6o YouTube] September 23, 2017 | Greatest End Times Sign | Discoverer Interviewed | Revelation 12 Sign!<br /><small>
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Rex Bear of LeakProject.com sits down with Scott Clarke of erfministries.com to discuss bible prophecy, signs in the heavens, the mark of the beast, biblical wars, the rapture, the tribulation, next September 23, and what 2017 may hold for those who dwell on earth … and so much more. Don’t miss this interview!</small>
  
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[https://youtu.be/t3S85UNUyu8 YouTube] The RAPTURE before February 17th 2017?
  
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[https://youtu.be/L6Ea5_A_cio YouTube] DID MICAH SEE THE RAPTURE IN A VISION?<br />
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<small>Teaching on dispensations and corrupt bible versions</small>
  
<p style="text-align: center;">~ ~ ~ ~ ~</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
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Revision as of 15:21, 1 January 2018

Updates: January 1, 2018

The Lord's Prayer

Jesus said "After this manner therefore pray all of you: Our Father which are in Heaven, Hallowed (Holy) be your Name. Your Kingdom come, Your Will be done in earth, as it is in Heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts (sins), as we forgive our debtors (sins against us). And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For Yours is the Kingdom, and the Power, and the Glory, forever. Amen. For if all of you forgive men their trespasses, your Heavenly Father will also forgive you: But if all of you forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses." ~ Matthew 6:9-15

Concerning the Future Judgment
The Sheep and the Goats

Jesus said "When the Son of Man shall come in His Glory, and all the Holy Angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the Throne of His Glory: And before Him shall be gathered all nations: and He shall separate them one from another, as a Shepherd divides His sheep from the goats: And He shall set the sheep on His right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King say unto them on His right hand, Come, all of you blessed of My Father, inherit the Kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: For I was hungry, and all of you gave Me food: I was thirsty, and all of you gave Me drink: I was a stranger, and all of you took Me in: Naked, and all of you clothed Me: I was sick, and all of you visited Me: I was in prison, and all of you came unto Me. Then shall the righteous answer Him, saying, Lord, when saw we You hungry, and fed you? or thirsty, and gave You drink? When saw we You a stranger, and took You in? or naked, and clothed You? Or when saw we You sick, or in prison, and came unto You? And the King shall answer and say unto them, Assuredly I say unto you, Inasmuch as all of you have done it unto one of the least of these My brethren, all of you have done it unto Me. Then shall He say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from Me, all of you cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: For I was hungry, and all of you gave Me no food: I was thirsty, and all of you gave Me no drink: I was a stranger, and all of you took Me not in: naked, and all of you clothed Me not: sick, and in prison, and all of you visited Me not. Then shall they also answer Him, saying, Lord, when saw we You hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto you? Then shall He answer them, saying, Assuredly I say unto you, Inasmuch as all of you did it not to one of the least of these, all of you did it not to Me. And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal. ~ Matthew 25:31-46

Note: Jesus made it clear to His disciples (followers) that we are to forgive one another and that we are to help, encourage and assist one another. It is very much a real concept that in the very and exact way that we treat others even strangers it is in the very same way that God is going to treat us including in the final judgment to come.

by David Anson Brown


 


Updates: December 30, 2017

The Primary Ages of the 7 Church Letters of Revelation from Jesus Christ

1. The Church at Ephesus -- The teaching instructing Church - The Apostles and their disciples including Justin Martyr, etc.
2. The Church at Smyrna -- The martyred persecuted Church - Polycarp the Bishop of Smyrna, Perpetua and Felicity of Carthage, etc.
3. The Church at Pergamos -- The worldly government Church - Constantine I, Ambrose, Monica, Augustine, etc.
4. The Church at Thyatira -- The Roman Catholic Church - Pope Leo I, Francis of Assisi, Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Queen Mary I of England, etc.
5. The Church at Sardis -- The Protestant Church - Anselm of Canterbury, William Tyndale, King James I of England, Charles Spurgeon, etc.
6. The Church at Philadelphia -- The friendship (Evangelical) Church - Queen Victoria, George Muller, Edward Backhouse, Oswald Chambers, etc.
7. The Church at Laodicea -- The modern comfortable (Emergent) Church - King Henry VIII of England, Westcott and Hort, C. S. Lewis, etc.

Note: what was important to Justin Martyr was that he had known and was connected to someone who he presumed had known an Apostle. Justin Martyr was witnessed to by a very elderly man who instructed Justin Martyr to start in the faith not by reading the Christian New Testament but by reading the Jewish Old Testament.

Ambrose Bishop of Milan, Italy "A Father of the Modern (Governmental) Church System" consecrated on December 7, 374 A.D.

Saint Ambrose of Milan was a founder in the 3rd Church era the Church at Pergamos the legal governmental church era.

Saint Monica the mother of Saint Augustine (baptized by Ambrose) was actually a member of the 2nd Church era Church of Smyrna -- The martyred persecuted Church before joining with Ambrose in Milan.

Also Note: Queen Mary I of England was an exceptional and gifted Catholic leader. The problem was not with her as a leader [as was so often the case especially at certain times during the ancient early Christian era Roman Empire] it was that the Church era [time in general] had shifted an moved on and the Protestant era had begun.

Recap: The 7 Church Letters of Revelation from Jesus Christ

1. The Church at Ephesus -- The teaching instructing Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by a personal knowledge of Jesus
2. The Church at Smyrna -- The martyred persecuted Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by total commitment even to death
3. The Church at Pergamos -- The worldly government Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by current worldly status
4. The Church at Thyatira -- The Roman Catholic Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by works i.e. Penance, Priests, Saint worship, Purgatory
5. The Church at Sardis -- The Protestant Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by knowledge i.e. creeds, confessions, statements
6. The Church at Philadelphia -- The friendship (Evangelical) Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by a personal relationship with Jesus
7. The Church at Laodicea -- The modern comfortable (Emergent) Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by self-acceptance [i.e I accept the way I am and the way I live my life so Jesus must accept me this way also]

 

6th Church Era - The English Society of Friends
A Major Evangelical Sect

The Religious Society of Friends: Doctrines and Practices ..., Publication date 1870
by Edward Backhouse Online Book

Early Church History to the Death of Constantine, Publication date 1884
by Edward Backhouse Online Book

 

Biographical Preface of Edward Backhouse by Dr. Thomas Hodgkin

As the following work may come into the hands of some who were not personally acquainted with its Author, it is necessary to devote a few pages to a sketch of his life and character. Those who knew Edward Backhouse of Sunderland, will never forget either the man or that fresh and vigorous Christianity which was the keynote of his life. But for the sake of others an attempt must be made to give an outline, however imperfectly, of the manner in which he served his own generation by the will of God before he fell asleep and was "laid with his fathers."

He was the son of Edward and Mary Backhouse, and was born at Darlington in 1808. A resident from early boyhood at Sunderland, of which place he became one of the foremost citizens, he was thoroughly identified in his interests with the busy, stirring life of the North of England. He was not himself, however, actively engaged in commerce. Although a partner in collieries [coal mining], and in the extensive banking business with which the name of his family has been so long connected, he took little, if any share in the practical management of these businesses, having desired from the time of his early manhood to keep his hands free for philanthropic and religious work.

He was an eager and diligent student of natural history, a frequent traveler, and a landscape painter of considerable merit. Though not cultivating the graces of a professed orator, he could always be relied on to make a plain, vigorous, straightforward speech, with a heartiness which never failed to win the ear of a popular assembly. He was a rather keen, but not bitter politician, on the Liberal side, but never sought a seat in Parliament, whither he could certainly have gone as representative of Sunderland if he had desired to do so.

His whole life was coloured by his enthusiastic adoption of the principles of that portion of the Christian Church to which his ancestors for many generations had belonged; the Society of Friends. During a considerable part of his life he occupied a conspicuous position as a minister among them. It is generally known that in their body there are no paid religious ministers, but the work of preaching and of pastoral visitation is discharged by such members of the society as may feel themselves commissioned by the Unseen Head of the Church to undertake it. After one of these volunteers has preached in the "meetings for worship" for a while, if his services meet with the approval of the congregation, it is the custom to "acknowledge" him. Ministers thus acknowledged acquire a certain official position, but still are in no sense a clergy distinct from the laity around them, but only members of the body, whose gift happens to be of a kind which brings them into somewhat greater prominence than their brethren.

Edward Backhouse used to refer his own conversion to the thirtieth year of his age. His life had been always pure and unblameable according to man's judgment. After this time it became more conspicuously devoted to the service of Christ; yet it was not till fourteen years after this time that he commenced work as a minister. In the interval his religious labours were chiefly of the kind which Friends call "eldership," and which consists in accompanying the ministers on their missionary journeys, advising them as to their spiritual course, and discriminating between the ministers whose gifts claim encouragement and eventual recognition, and those who seem to have mistaken their vocation. In 1852 he began to preach in the assemblies of Friends, and after two years' probation was "recognized" as a minister, which position he occupied for the remaining twenty-five years of his life.

His preaching was very characteristic of the man, with no elaborate oratory, but a fine natural flow of language and a certain character of manly strength and earnestness in every discourse. His favourite topic of exhortation, especially in later years, was, "Press on, do not be satisfied with infancy or childhood in the Christian life. It is time now that you were full grown men and women in Christ Jesus, with all the power to overcome which this mature life should bring to you." The happiness of the Christian believer was another favorite theme, both in his conversation and his sermons. In speaking of his life after his conversion he says, "The more closely I kept to my faithful Guide, the more I understood the beauty of holiness, the glory of the Lord's delightsome land, the sweetness, the safety and the rest of abiding in Jesus." Those words, "the Lord's delightsome land," are very characteristic both of his life and ministry, and in writing them one seems to hear again the fine tones of that strong and hearty voice impressing, them on his hearers.

... It is difficult to describe this part of his character without conveying the impression that his was a self-indulgent life; but this was far from being the case. The sorrows and the sins of great cities, and especially of the great seaport near to which he himself lived, claimed a very large share of his time and thought, and he spent not only money, but health and energy freely in the endeavor to alleviate and reform them. He erected a large mission hall in one of the poorest districts of Sunderland, which became the resort of a large congregation, and was the center of a great Christianizing and civilizing work in a district which had much need of such assistance. In the various operations connected with this place, both on Sundays and weekdays, he took a large personal share. ... THOMAS HODGKIN


Updates: December 7, 2017

Saint Ambrose, Saint Monica and Saint Augustine

Ambrose Bishop of Milan, Italy "Father of the Modern (Governmental) Church System" consecrated on December 7, 374 A.D.

St Ambrose of Milan was a founder in the 3rd Church era the Church at Pergamos the legal governmental church era.

St Monica the mother of St Augustine (baptized by Ambrose) was actually a member of the 2nd Church era Church of Smyrna -- The martyred persecuted Church before joining with Ambrose in Milan.

When Augustine rejected Christianity in his youth it was the persecuted Church era Christianity of his mother Monica that he was rejecting. The early persecuted Church practiced what today we would call a Pentecostalism mixed with pagan practices.

In Milan the Bishop Ambrose rebuked the practices of (grave vigils - for those martyred) that Monica and her friends were practicing in Milan. Augustine was impressed that Ambrose rebuked the practice and again decided to consider Christianity.

Ambrose and many of his era including Augustine had rejected the Judeo/Christian model of the early Church and were looking to practice a Platonism/Christian model (i.e. the "School of Plato" including both the Gnosticism of Plato and the Philosophy of Aristotle) of Christianity.

Pope Leo I (400-461 AD) is loosely considered to be the first Pope of the 4th Church era the Church at Thyatira -- The Roman Catholic Church.

Judeo/Christian would come back into practice in the 6th Church era with the Church at Philadelphia -- The friendship (Evangelical) Church.

Note: the church at Rome "Vatican" didn't exist in the early Church years. The Council of Nicea was primarily hosted and represented by the stronger more influential Eastern Churches. The Church of Rome sending only two Presbyters and no Bishops to the very important Council of Nicea.

by David Anson Brown

Who was St Ambrose of Milan? YouTube

Augustine (Part 1) YouTube

Augustine (Part 2) YouTube

The 7 Churches Eras of Christianity Daily Christian Devotional


Updates: December 6, 2017

Excellent News!

President Trump's speech was exceptionally well implemented. It couldn't possibly have been given with any more meaning, compassion and impactful importance then what the President delivered. Well done President Trump! ~ David Anson Brown

Trump to Announce Jerusalem as Capital of Israel
The Jerusalem Post Article

US to recognise Jerusalem as Israel's capital
BBC Article

Nettanyahu on Trump's Jerusalem Declaration: Our National, Historical Identity Being Recognized Today
Haaretz Article

Five things to watch in Trump's Jerusalem speech
Yahoo Article

President Trump: US Recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's Capital 12/06/2017 [FULL SPEECH]
Live Stream TV News YouTube

The Czech Republic follows Trump's lead and recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's capital
Business Insider Article


Updates: November 24, 2017

Christian Church History

The Ancient Roman world YouTube

Constantine the Great YouTube

Apostolic Fathers YouTube

Christian Apologists and Early Heresies YouTube

Worship in the Didache SermonAudio


Updates: November 12, 2017

Church Creeds, Confessions and Councils

Understanding Christian Church History!

Creeds and Councils: What are they? YouTube Council of Constantinople YouTube Council of Chalcedon YouTube Great Schism of 1054 A.D. YouTube

The Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther and the Heidelberg Disputation YouTube Luther's Reformation Breakthrough YouTube The Importance of the Reformation YouTube

500th anniversary of the Protestant Reformation

Movie: Luther (2003)
During the early 16th Century [Oct. 31, 1517 AD] idealistic German monk Martin Luther, disgusted by the materialism in the church, begins the dialogue that will lead to the Protestant Reformation. Luther 2003 Movie Trailer YouTube

Kennedy Classics - The Reformation: Then and Now YouTube

Hundreds expected to attend celebration of 500th anniversary of Protestant Reformation
CJonline.com Article

Discovery Institute fellow: The Protestant Reformation, 500 years on
NewsOK Article

John Wycliffe the Morning Star of the Reformation
ThirdMill Article

FoxNews: The Reformation, led by Luther, failed. Here's how we could finally reunite the Christian church Article

Saint Anselm of Canterbury
Wikipedia Article

Note: Anselm of Canterbury is credited with changing the church focus from a Catholic Works doctrine to a Protestant Knowledge doctrine.

The 7 Church Letters of Revelation from Jesus Christ

1. The Church at Ephesus -- The teaching instructing Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by a personal knowledge of Jesus
2. The Church at Smyrna -- The martyred persecuted Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by total commitment even to death
3. The Church at Pergamos -- The worldly government Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by current worldly status
4. The Church at Thyatira -- The Roman Catholic Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by works i.e. Penance, Priests, Saint worship, Purgatory
5. The Church at Sardis -- The Protestant Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by knowledge i.e. creeds, confessions, statements
6. The Church at Philadelphia -- The friendship (Evangelical) Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by a personal relationship with Jesus
7. The Church at Laodicea -- The modern comfortable (Emergent) Church - Faith in Jesus exhibited by self-acceptance [i.e I accept the way I am and the way I live my life so Jesus must accept me this way also]


Updates: October 2, 2017

Christmas Day - Savior Day!
Christmas Day - Savior Day!

Approximately the day that Jesus Christ the Savior of the world entered into the world! -- The Evangelical Christmas

Christmas Day is Monday, December 25th 2017

Selected Christmas Sermon for 2017
Christ The Savior and King -- Luke 1:26-38, Isaiah 9:6, Daniel 7:14
Source: Bloomsburg Community Church 2009


Thanksgiving (Christian Feast of Tabernacles) 2017

... that the abundant grace might through the Thanksgiving of many redound to the glory of God

Thanksgiving Day is Thursday, November 23rd 2017

We having the same Spirit of faith, according as it is written, I believed, and therefore have I spoken; we also believe, and therefore speak; Knowing that He which raised up the Lord Jesus shall raise up us also by Jesus, and shall present (in heaven) us with you. For all things are for your sakes, that the abundant grace might through the Thanksgiving of many redound to the glory of God. For which cause we faint not; but though our outward man perish, yet the inward man (soul) is renewed day by day. For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory; While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal. ~ 2 Corinthians 4:13-18

Source: The Evangelical Thanksgiving

Kennedy Classics - Pilgrims Give Thanks YouTube
Kennedy Classics - The Pilgram Legacy YouTube



Countdown Judeo-Christian Evangelical Feast Schedule 2018

Holy Week (Passover) - Friday March 23rd 2018 ---> Easter Sunday April 1st 2018

Pentecost (Shavuot) - May 20th 2018
Feast of Trumpets (Rosh Hashanah) - Sunset on Sunday, September 9th ---> Tuesday, September 11th (IST)
Thanksgiving (Feast of Tabernacles) - Thursday, November 22nd 2018
Christmas Day 'Savior Day' - The Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) - Tuesday, December 25th 2018

Note: Rosh Hashanah the Jewish Feast is observed every year by Judaism. The Christian fulfillment of Rosh Hashanah the Feast of Trumpets happens only once [when God the Father calls the Bride of the Son of God the Christian Church into Heaven]. Likewise there is only one Christian Holy Week (Passover) Feast fulfilled in Jesus Christ and only one Pentecost (Shavuot) fulfilled in the Holy Spirit. ~ David Anson Brown

The Eight Old Testament Holy Feasts of Leviticus Chapter 23

Holy Convocations, A Statute Forever, All Generations

Schedule of The Lord's 8 Holy Feast Days --- Spring Feasts: Holy Week is comprised of the four Salvation Feasts {Sabbath (Rest), The Lord's Passover, Unleavened Bread, and Firstfruits (Easter)} --- Pentecost (Shavuot) [Acts 2:1 - Church Age] is the Middle Feast: The Sanctification Feast --- The Fall Feasts: The three Redemption Feasts are comprised of {Feast of Trumpets (Rosh Hashanah) possibly the Rapture dates of the Christian Church, Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), and Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot)}

The Eight Holy Feasts of Leviticus Chapter 23

Salvation Feasts (Spring Feasts) - Jesus' First Coming

1. Sabbath (Rest) - Saturdays - fulfilled (Holy Week) at the Triumphal Entry of Jesus into Jerusalem

2. The Lord's Passover - 14th day of Nisan - fulfilled (Holy Week) at the Last Supper

3. Unleavened Bread - 15th day of Nisan - fulfilled (Holy Week) on the Cross

4. Firstfruits [Born Again] (Easter) - first Sunday after the Feast of The Lord's Passover - fulfilled (Holy Week) in the Resurrection

Sanctification Feast (Summer Feast or Middle Feast) - The work of the Holy Spirit

5. Pentecost (Shavuot) Acts 2:1 - 50 Days (7 Sabbaths + 1 day) from the Sabbath Day before the Feast of Firstfruits or the 7th Sunday (49 days) after the Feast of Firstfruits (Easter Sunday) - currently in progress

Final Redemption Feasts (Fall Feasts) - Jesus' Second Coming

6. Feast of Trumpets (Rosh Hashanah)

7. Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)

8. Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot)

Christian Feast Days 2018

Holy Week (Passover) - Friday March 23, 2018 ---> Easter Sunday April 1, 2018

The Feast of Pentecost (Shavuot) - Sunday May 20, 2018

The Fall Feasts (Rosh Hashanah) - Sunday Sept. 9-11, 2018 at sundown in Jerusalem, Israel
Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) - Tuesday Sept. 18-19 at sundown in Jerusalem, Israel

Christmas Day 'Savior Day' - Tuesday December 25, 2018

The Rapture of the Christian Church

The Rapture [the end of the current Christian Church Age - the Church is called into Heaven] and [on] the Jewish Feast of Trumpets.

The Rapture and the Feast of Trumpets Youtube

Note: There are actually 8 prescribed Feast Days not 7 in Leviticus Chapter 23. The Feast Day of Sabbath [the Triumphal Entry (Palm Saturday) of Jesus Entering into Jerusalem for our Rest is often omitted by modern teachers]. The 7 Feast days comes from an ancient Alexandria, Egypt spiritualist teaching of the scriptures in equating the Feast Days of Israel with the 7 lamp bulbs of the Temple candlestick and therefore one of the 8 Feast Days had to be subtracted to get to the 7 to match the Temple lampstand. The 7 Feast Days is not a Biblical teaching it is an extra-biblical teaching. The 8 Feast Days is the correct Biblical teaching.

Rosh Hashanah the Jewish Feast is observed every year by Judaism. The Christian fulfillment of Rosh Hashanah the Feast of Trumpets happens only once [when God the Father calls the Bride of the Son of God the Christian Church into Heaven]. Likewise there is only one Christian Holy Week (Passover) Feast fulfilled in Jesus Christ and only one Pentecost (Shavuot) fulfilled in the Holy Spirit.

Countdown: 2017 Feast of Trumpets (Jewish Rosh Hashanah) starts at sundown on Wednesday September 20th until sundown on Friday September 22nd.

The-Jesus-Realm.com



Updates: October 30, 2017

Harvest Festival - Halloween - Reformation Day

Jesus Christ the Lord of the Living

Shortly before his crucifixion, Jesus was questioned by the Sadducees about the concept of a resurrection. In order to demonstrate that there will be a future resurrection from the dead, Jesus told them: "But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken to you by God, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living." (Mt. 22:31-32)

"However, among the heathen Druids, Samhain or Saman, is the lord of the dead and that lord is none other than Satan himself! Therefore, when people celebrate the dead, they unknowingly honor the devil!"

It is important to understand what Jesus meant by these profound words "God is not the God of the dead, but of the living." The Sadducees to whom Jesus was speaking did not believe in a resurrection. They also accepted only the Torah as holy scripture. With this in mind, Jesus quoted the Torah (Ex. 3:6) to prove that a resurrection would one day occur. He did this by illustrating that long after the death of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, God continued to refer to Himself as their God: "I am the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob," not "I was the God..."

The point Jesus was making was that although these patriarchs were dead (Heb. 11:13), they will live again in the resurrection, as will all of God’s people (Dan. 12:2; Lk 14:14; Jn 5:28; Rev. 20:4-6). Although these men were dead, they were as good as alive at that moment because God’s promise of a resurrection is immutable (Rom. 4:17).

With this understanding, Jesus’ words take on greater meaning. The God of the Bible is the GOD OF THE LIVING, not the God of the dead! To worship the true God, we should not celebrate rites dedicated to the dead.

Who is the Lord of the Dead?

However, among the heathen Druids, Samhain or Saman, is the lord of the dead and that lord is none other than Satan himself! Therefore, when people celebrate the dead, they unknowingly honor the devil!

Fall/Harvest Festival versus Halloween?

Best Answer: Every year, millions of children throughout the world celebrate the custom of Halloween. During this celebration, they dress up in costumes, parade through neighborhoods knocking on doors, and declare the words "trick or treat," expecting to receive candy or some sort of gift. But is Halloween something Christians should celebrate? Is this the kind of festival Jesus Christ would want us to observe?

Today, Halloween is celebrated on the evening of All Hallows or All Saints Day. Because days were customarily reckoned as beginning at sunset, Halloween was celebrated in anticipation of November 1, which was dedicated to the Lord of the Dead. Halloween is founded on a fear of the spirits of the dead possessing those who are alive. This fear is driven by a belief that man has an immortal soul. It is important to understand that the Bible clearly declares that only God has immortality at this time. The apostle Paul, when writing to Timothy about Jesus Christ, said, "Who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; Whom no man hath seen, nor can see: to Whom be honour and power everlasting. Amen." (1 Tim. 6:16)

First, understand that although Halloween professes to be a Christian holiday, it is anything but Christian. This custom was celebrated by the pagan world centuries before the New Testament Church was ever founded and it was not introduced into the professing Christian world until centuries after the deaths of the apostles. In fact, if you search the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, you will not find a single line advocating the observance of this holiday or anything like it. On the contrary, God condemns such practices throughout the scriptures.

A Strange Superstition

Halloween is one of the strangest holidays mankind celebrates. It is an amazing paradox, an unusual mixture of Christian terms and ancient pagan religious rites. Moreover, despite the technological and intellectual advancements our society has made, it still clings to ignorance of the past. As a result, we celebrate ancient superstitions by partaking in pagan rites, dressing up as witches, goblins, ghosts, skeletons, and demons.

What is this holiday? Where did it come from and why is it celebrated? It certainly did not come from the Bible or the early Christian church raised up by Jesus Christ and the apostles (Mt. 16:13-17). Consider what authorities say regarding the origin and practice of Halloween.

Ralph Linton, on page four of his book, Halloween Through Twenty Centuries, explains the connection between the current practice of Halloween and a pagan rite practiced by the ancient Druids.

"The American celebration rests upon Scottish and Irish folk customs which can be traced in direct line from pre-Christian times. Although Halloween has become a night of rollicking fun, superstitious spells, and eerie games that people take only half seriously, its beginnings were quite otherwise. The earliest Halloween celebrations were held by the Druids in honor of Samhain, Lord of the Dead, whose festival fell on November 1."

Further, the Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition, Volume 12 says: "It was a Druidic belief that on the eve of this festival, Saman, lord of death, called together the wicked souls that within the past 12 months had been condemned to inhabit the bodies of animals..." (pp. 847-858)

The Yearbook of English Festivals by Dorothy Gladys Spicer adds the following: "All Hallows' Eve or All Hallow E'en, with its tradition of witches, ghosts, hobgoblins and spirits, its games and incantations, still is a gay time for pranks and parties in many North country homes. Fun-loving Americans have borrowed from their British ancestors many Hallow E'en games such as apple-bobbing, nut roasting and tossing of apple parings. Transplanted to the New World soil, the old practices have become revitalized, and currently are observed with more enthusiasm than in the country of their birth."

"To ancient Druids, the end of October commemorated the festival of the waning year, when the sun began his downward course and ripened grain was garnered from the fields." "Samhain, or 'Summer's End,' as this feast to the dying sun was called, was celebrated with human sacrifice, augury and prayers; for at this season spirits walked, and evil had power over souls of men."

"Not until the fourth century did the pagan vigil for the god of light give way to All Hallows, the mass for Christian saints; and not until the tenth, did the Druids' death feast become All Souls' the day of prayer for souls that had entered rest. Cakes for the dead were substituted for human sacrifice, fortune-telling for heathen augury, lighted candles for the old Baal fires."

Far from being Christian, Halloween is an old pagan holiday masquerading as though it were one of the customs of the church. Despite this, professing Christians encourage their children to get into the spirit of this pagan custom!

The celebration of Halloween is clearly a relic of pagan times and superstitious tradition. Notice what the authoritative Encyclopedia Britannica says about this holiday.

"It long antedates Christianity. The two chief characteristics of ancient Halloween were the lighting of bonfires and the belief that this is the one night in the year during which ghosts and witches are most likely to wander about. History shows that the main celebrations of Halloween were purely 'Druidical,' and this is further proved by the fact that in parts of Ireland October 31 is still known as Oidhch Shamhna, 'Vigil of Saman.'"

Saman or Samhain was the pagan lord of the dead among the Druids. However, this pagan holiday was not celebrated among the Druids alone. It has been and is currently celebrated around the world in different forms, but always with the same general pattern and meaning.

Halloween was also a [ancient] Roman festival. Consider the words of the Encyclopedia Britannica regarding this celebration.

"On the Druidic ceremonies were grafted some of the characteristics of the Roman festival in honor of Pomona held about November 1, in which nuts and apples, representing the winter store of fruits, played an important part."

Halloween can be identified in various forms all around the world. It is found in both Christian and non-Christian countries. This is because its origins predate Christianity. Marie Trevelyan, in her book Folk Stories of Wales, writes the following.

"In Wales it was firmly believed that on All Hallows' Eve the spirit of a departed person was to be seen at midnight on every crossroad and every stile." (p. 254)

The practices involved in Halloween are also found in Mexico. In the book Adonis by Frazer, the practice of Halloween is clearly identified, not only by its date, but also by its symbolism and rituals.

"The Miztecs of Mexico believed that the dead came back in the twelfth month of the year, which corresponded to our November. On this day of All Souls the houses were decked out to welcome the spirits. Jars of food and drink were set on a table in the principal room, and the family went out with the torches to meet the ghosts and invite them to enter. Then, returning to the house they knelt around the table, and with their eyes bent on the ground, prayed the souls to accept the offerings." (p. 244)

The elements of this holiday are also found in Cambodia. According to E. Aymonier in the work Notice sur le Cambodge, people would chant, "O all your ancestors, who are departed, deign to come and eat what we have prepared for you, and to bless your posterity and to make it happy." (p. 59)

It is clear that the trappings of Halloween have covered nations around the world. It is equally clear that the practices embraced by this holiday are not Christian at all.

Its Symbols and Superstitions

Understand the shocking truth from history as to why this holiday was celebrated! Ruth Kelly, a recognized authority on Halloween, wrote that because the Druids believed in the immortality of the soul, they concluded that a person’s spirit would pass from them at death and seek out another body in which to reside.

"The pagan Druid priests . . . taught the immortality of the soul, that it passed from one body to another at death . . . They believed that on the last night of the old year the lord of death gathered together the souls of all those who had died in the passing year and had been condemned to live in the bodies of animals, to decree what forms they should inhabit for the next twelve months. He could be coaxed to give the lighter sentence by gifts and prayers." (The Book of Halloween, p. 10)

Many Druids believed that black cats were in fact reincarnated human beings, and that the Priest had the ability to divine the future through them. If any crossed your path, however, it would mean they might posses you, a very bad omen. Halloween was celebrated to preserve in the minds of the people the false doctrine that the soul is immortal and that the dead are not really dead. The Celtic peoples believed that the souls of good men went to paradise while the souls of those who did evil were reincarnated in the form of animals for a year. The only chance these disembodied souls had for a decent afterlife was to return on this day of Samhain, and find a human body to possess. It is important to understand that November was regarded by the Celtic people as the beginning of the New Year. Therefore, it was a perfect time for their priests to remember and celebrate the dead.

Source: Fall/Harvest Festival versus Halloween Trick or Treating?
Yahoo Article



Reformation Day and All Saints Day 2014

Yeah, everybody knows 31 October is the day Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses to the church door and started the Reformation. Everybody knows it's Halloween too. What does this mean?

The Origin of All Saints' Day

So when did we start having a Feast of All Hallows on 1 November? Well, we started having a Feast of All Hallows, or Saints, before it was on 1 November! In the Eastern Church, all the saints are collectively remembered on the first Sunday after Pentecost. It really got rolling when the emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire Leo VI (886-911) built a church in honour of his wife when she died, but as she was not a recognised saint he dedicated the church to all the saints, so that she would be included in a commemoration of all saints whether recognised as such or not.

Source: Reformation Day and All Saints Day
Past Elder Article


Halloween, Scorpio, Reincarnation and the Birth of Astrology

If you live in the Northern hemisphere, and if you are lucky enough to reside in a place that boasts four seasons, take a look around and you will see the passionate love-making of Lady Death and Laddie Life. If ever their love affair had an anniversary, it is Oct 31, Halloween. And the product of their illustrious adulation are the twins: Astrology and Science. Since Death and Life are lovers, let me assure you, that you need not be afraid to die, just as you should not fear life. For in nature, mythology, astrology, and science, they are bound together, opposite yet the same, like you and your mirror image.

Note: what this awkward and inaccurate article is really describing is a type of occultism - i.e. Jewish Kabbalah. October 31st during the day is All Saints Day and Protestant Reformation Day however in the Kabbalah Jewish tradition the new day begins in the evening at sundown. Therefore sundown on October 31st is actually November 1st to an occult Kabbalah observer.

Source: Halloween, Scorpio, Reincarnation and the Birth of Astrology
HUFFPOST Article


Sundown and Yom Kippur

Note: All Jewish holidays begin at sundown because the Jewish people believe that the day begins in the evening and ends the next evening. Yom Kippur begins at sundown on the day before the date specified on the Jewish calendar for the holiday and ends an hour after sunset on the specified date.

Refrence Article


The History Behind Samhain

All Hallow Mass
Around the eighth century or so, the Catholic Church decided to use November 1st as All Saints Day. This was actually a pretty smart move on their part – the local pagans were already celebrating that day anyway, so it made sense to use it as a church holiday.

All Saints’ became the festival to honor any saint who didn’t already have a day of his or her own. The mass which was said on All Saints’ was called Allhallowmas – the mass of all those who are hallowed. The night before naturally became known as All Hallows Eve, and eventually morphed into what we call Halloween.

Note: Samhain would be considered a Kabbalah Occult event.

Also Note: All Saints Day is observed loosely starting from Oct. 31st until the first Sunday in November and commonly as the "Triduum of Allhallowtide" the three days of Oct. 31 - Nov. 2.

The History Behind Samhain
ThoughtCo Article


All Saints' Day

In the Western Christian practice, the liturgical celebration begins at Vespers [an evening usually midweek church service] on the evening of 31 October, All Hallows' Eve (All Saints' Eve), and ends at the close of 1 November. It is thus the day before All Souls' Day, which commemorates the faithful departed. In many traditions, All Saints' Day is part of the triduum of Allhallowtide, which lasts three days from 31 October to 2 November inclusive.

Wikipedia Article


Updates: July 30, 2017

God the Holy Spirit ~ Fruit, Gifts, Sanctification

"You can have a personal relationship with God." We like to pull this amazing declaration out of our evangelism toolboxes, to focus on the fact that a relationship with God is actually possible for human beings. This fact is at the wondrous heart of biblical, evangelical Christianity.

"You can have a personal relationship with God." We like to pull this amazing declaration out of our evangelism toolboxes, to focus on the fact that a relationship with God is actually possible for human beings. This fact is at the ...

However, another word from the above statement also deserves our attention: personal. More than just a modifier of "relationship," "personal" points to the fact that God Himself must be personal in order to relate to us.

How does Almighty God pull off being personal? According to theologian Millard Erickson, "The Holy Spirit is the point at which the Trinity becomes personal to the believer."

1. The Spirit is the actual presence of God, active and alive, within Christians. Another theologian wrote, "Though we speak of the Spirit as the third Person [of the Trinity], from the standpoint of experience Spirit is first, because it is the Spirit that enables us to experience God's ... drawing near."

2. Think about all these ideas regarding God the Holy Spirit: personal, active, alive, experiential, and "drawing near." As the very presence of God within us, the Holy Spirit does all sorts of things, among them producing [righteous] fruit, giving gifts, and making [us] holy [Christian Sanctification].

Another thought about [Holy] spiritual fruit is worth mentioning. These nine elements — multiple parts of a singular fruit, like a cluster of grapes — perfectly describe life in the [Holy] Spirit. W. T. Conner, long-time theologian at Southwestern Seminary, phrased it perfectly in saying that the Spirit-filled life is moral and ethical, not "an emotional orgy. ... Paul was no wild enthusiast. His religion [traditional Christianity] always had at its center the element of rational and moral control. Christian character and conduct were the fruit of the [Holy] Spirit."

Source: sbclife.net


Updates: July 16, 2017

Introduction to Christian Zionism
Christian Covenant Zionism and Christian Dispensation Zionism
  • Christian Covenant Zionism is primarily focused on the future Christian Church - Millennial Reign government, administrations, individual functions, etc.
  • Christian Dispensation Zionism is primarily focused on the future Jewish Israel - Millennial Reign Temple, government, administrations, etc.


Zionism: Christian Zionism by David Krusch
jewishvirtuallibrary.org/christian-zionism


The International Fellowship of Christians and Jews (IFCJ)
www.ifcj.org


Haaretz: Christian Zionism Losing Its Israel Grip on Evangelicals
whtt.org/haaretz-article-exposes-decline-christian-zionism-evan


Biblical Christian Zionism (MP3's)
davidpawson.org/resources/series/biblical-christian-zionism

Note: the Listen option is one-click but the Download MP3 option brings up a popup screen that also needs to be clicked.

Christian Zionists are charged with being politically dangerous, ... They are also said to be theologically heretical for two reasons.

On the one hand, they [Zionists] teach the very opposite of Replacement theology (the notion that the church has replaced Israel as God’s people to achieve his purpose) which has been part of Christian tradition for centuries.

On the other hand, the Zionist conviction that God has brought Israel back to her own land in our day has become entangled with Dispensational theology, which is largely discredited in Britain but still widely held in America.

These three [MP3] talks are an integral series, aiming to lay a foundation for Biblical Christian Zionism in the New Testament. They expose the differences between this and both Replacement and Dispensational viewpoints, one too anti-Israel and the other too pro-Israel. Given in March 2007 by David Pawson


Updates: July 2, 2017

The Protestant Reformation

When the Protestant Reformation officially occurred on Oct. 31, 1157 AD with the Catholic Monk Martin Luther posting of his Ninety-Five Theses complaints against various Catholic church practices and some abuses. The Protestant Reformation in splitting from the Catholic church actually split into two Protestant factions the Evangelical faction and the Reformed Calvinism faction.

Evangelical Protestant Christianity tends to view a fallen mankind as capable of doing good and generally being pleasing to a Good, Loving, Caring, Faithful and approachable Father God.

Calvinism Protestant Christianity tends to view a fallen mankind as unable to please God and tends to see the Father God in a more stern and unapproachable way.

The word Protestant means Pro "in favor of" and Testament "witness" the Christian Protestant movement is not an anti-Catholic movement it is a movement that is "in favor" and for primarily three Christian traditions that Christians felt were being neglected or denied by the Catholic church.

1. Sola Scripture - the Bible is the only authority for Christian doctrine and the main authority for Christian living.

2. Sola Fida - meaning that "Faith" not our works but Faith in the finished works [cross and resurrection] of Jesus Christ is our primary acceptable entrance into heaven.

3. Sola Sacerdos - interaction between God and mankind is via a "Sacred Priesthood" the Priesthood (1 Peter 2:9) {Royal Melchizedek Priesthood} is available to all Christians at all times by and thru the agency of the Holy Spirit and is not strictly a human appointed priesthood as had developed in the Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches.

by David Anson Brown


Updates: June 4, 2017

Fall Feasts 2017

Video: Bride will be Raptured during a Feast of Trumpets "Rosh Hashanah" by Mark Biltz Trumpets YouTube

Feast of Trumpets (Leviticus 23:24)

The two-day Jewish Feast of Trumpets is interesting as it is both the next Biblical Feast (Leviticus 23) in order to be prophetically fulfilled “in their seasons” (Leviticus 23:4) and it is also considered to be the Feast time that provides the possible and even the probable end (i.e. Rapture event) of the current Christian Church Era.

The current New Testament Christian Church started on a Feast Day the (Sunday) Feast of Firstfruits (Easter Sunday). The next Feast the Feast of Trumpets is the start of the Jewish New Year the civil (secular) New Year.

The Christian Church would be considered to end sometime on the two-day Jewish New Year (Feast of Trumpets) Festival in that prophetically the prophetic calendar now switches from the Gentile timeline back to the *secular Jewish timeline in order to eventually complete the prophetic 70th Week (Daniel 9:27) of the famous prophecy of Daniel’s 70 Weeks (Daniel 9:24) prophecy.

  • The civil or secular nature of the Jewish New Year is that the New Year in itself does not directly initiate the start of Daniel's 70 Week. The 70th Week is actually initiated slightly later by a set of separate actions and conditions i.e. a Jewish Temple existing in Jerusalem on the Temple Mount and by various political covenants and developments.

Updates: April 21, 2017

Evangelical Christianity Explained

I have recently been studying early-church history including Roman Emperors, Crusaders, Nights Templers and Spanish Conquistadors. Much of what these groups were doing and attempting to do was.

1. Going to Jerusalem attempting to find traditional Christianity [though they often were looking for an artifacts based Christianity]

2. Taking that Jerusalem based original Christianity out into the world

This video is a good summary of where modern Christianity should be though granted there are several nuances where the video is wrong i.e. teaching only 7 Feast Days when in actuality there are the 8 Biblical Leviticus chapter 23 Feast Days starting with the often left out "Sabbath Feast Day" (the Triumphal Entry of Jesus Christ into Jerusalem often taught as Palm Sunday but is actually a Saturday Sabbath event in the Bible).

Leaving out the unauthenticated artifacts of times past and instead focusing on the correct Acts 2:1 "one accord" Jerusalem schedule is a desired and reasonable place for the modern Christian.

Actually if we neglect the ancient teachings and timelines of the Bible then we are mostly left with modern interpretations of what someone thinks the Bible should say.

One of the safest and best ways to understand the Bible is to do it in the original timeline and context of the ancient Feast Days of Israel.

The "Millennial Rein" of Jesus Christ
the coming Jerusalem centered Kingdom on Earth of Jesus Christ

The Four Dispensations of The Bible's New Testament

In the Apostle Paul's trip to Rome [recorded in the Bible's Book of Acts by the early Church Historian Luke] are some of the most codded and cryptic passages of the Bible's New Testament. Was Luke aided by the Apostle Paul, putting forth the future of the Church Era and an End Time scenario that Christians could glean from to understand events both current and future?

Summary: The Apostle Paul's Journey to Rome - The Four Dispensations of the Times since the 1st Coming of Jesus Christ seem to have been mapped out and enacted throughout Paul's Journey to Rome.

1. The Apostles Dispensation (Acts 27:1-5)
2. The Common Christian Church Age (Acts 27:6-44)
3. The Martyred Saints of Revelation Tribulation (Acts 28:1-15)
4. The 1,000 year Millennial Kingdom Reign of Jesus Christ on earth (Acts 28:16-31)

Source: Common Christian Community Daily Devotional

Recap: the slight problem with the teaching in the video is that the teacher Mark Biltz is using the traditions of men to interpret the Bible instead of using the Bible to interpret the Bible. For example it is the tradition of men that there are only seven Feast Days yet the Bible in Leviticus chapter 23 commands eight Feast Days. As Christians it's imperative that we have an accurate Biblical message derived from the Bible (usually the reliable KJV) and not just the constant parroting of slightly inaccurate teachings that the Christian Church has become mired in.

By David Anson Brown



Updates: March 2017

I'm posting this info as generally informative of current events and ideas
not as specific future events
The September 23, 2017 Signs in Heaven

I have been watching some YouTube videos about End Time events. Each new year brings the potential of End Time prophetic events and already 2017 as a year of change has the potential to begin a significant new era. I certainly don't think 2017 is the end of anything and more likely it is the beginning of a new season however with so much change happening so fast it will be a good idea to get familiar with some of these current concepts so they don't surprise us and possibly confuse us all the more. If I see anything else interesting or that is helpful I'll also post it.

In the last few years there have been some significant changes in the global society. i.e. Pope Francis (2013), Brexit (2016), Trump (2017). The Bible is mostly centered on Israel and Europe regarding the End Times.

I'm not a fan of 1 person prophecy shows. I think that prophecy should be discussed in a group to help provide a better balance and should maintain traditional Protestant Church traditions and creeds. Also taking care not to place America completely front and center in End Times prophecy as that is difficult to do and maintain a traditional Biblical view since the Bible is mostly centered on Israel and Europe regarding the End Times. All the best to everyone!
David Anson Brown

YouTube 5 Ways the World Has CHANGED since 58th Inauguration of TRUMP | Can LIBERTY Exist without Religion?
Pastor Steve Cioccolanti is declaring the start of global revival. This teaching begins an important series on Good Government called "Is America a Christian Nation?"

YouTube September 23, 2017 | Greatest End Times Sign | Discoverer Interviewed | Revelation 12 Sign!
Rex Bear of LeakProject.com sits down with Scott Clarke of erfministries.com to discuss bible prophecy, signs in the heavens, the mark of the beast, biblical wars, the rapture, the tribulation, next September 23, and what 2017 may hold for those who dwell on earth … and so much more. Don’t miss this interview!

YouTube The RAPTURE before February 17th 2017?

YouTube DID MICAH SEE THE RAPTURE IN A VISION?
Teaching on dispensations and corrupt bible versions


© Copyright by David Anson Brown 2014-2018. All rights reserved.